2016-6-16 作者:MedSci   来源:MedSci原创 我要评论2
Tags: 医学词汇  


active immunity(主动免疫): Immunity acquired through direct stimulation of the immune system by antigen.

active transport(主动运输):Transport of molecules against a concentration gradient (from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration) with the aid of proteins in the cell membrane and energy from ATP.

Alcohol fermentation(乙醇发酵):is the formation of alcohol from sugar. Yeast, when under anaerobic conditions, convert glucose to pyruvic acid via the glycolysis pathways, then go one step farther, converting pyruvic acid into ethanol, a C-2 compound.

aerobe(好氧微生物): A microorganism that lives and grows in the presence of free gaseous oxygen (O2).

aflatoxin(黄曲霉毒素): From Aspergillus flavus t, a mycotoxin that typically poisons moldy animal feed and can cause liver cancer in humans and other animals.

AIDS(爱滋病): Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome. The complex of signs and symptoms characteristic of the late phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. 

Ames test(艾姆氏实验): A method for detecting mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic agents based upon the genetic alteration of nutritionally defective bacteria 

anabolism(合成代谢): The energy consuming process of incorporating nutrients into protoplasm through biosynthesis.

anaerobe(厌氧微生物): A microorganism that grows best, or exclusively, in the absence of oxygen.

antibiotic(抗生素):A chemical substance from one microorganism that can inhibit or kill another microbe even in minute amounts.

antibody(抗体): A large protein molecule evoked in response to an antigen that interacts specifically with that antigen.

antigen(抗原): Any cell, particle, or chemical that induces a specific immune response by B cells or T cells and can stimulate resistance to an infection or a toxin.

antigenic determinant(抗原决定基):The precise molecular group of an antigen that defines its specificity and triggers the immune response.

antimetabolite(抗代谢物):A substance such as a drug that competes with, substitutes for, or interferes with a normal metabolite.

antiseptic(防腐剂):A growth-inhibiting agent used on tissues to prevent infection.

antiserum(抗血清):Antibody-rich serum derived from the blood of animals (deliberately immunized against infectious or toxic antigen) or from people who have recovered from specific nfections.

antitoxin(抗毒素):Globulin fraction of serum that neutralizesa specific toxin. Also refers to the specific antitoxin antibody itself.

arthrospore(节孢子):A fungal spore formed by the septation fragmentation of hyphae.

ascospore(子囊):A spore formed within a saclike cell (ascus) of Ascomycota following nuclear fusion and meiosis.

asepsis(无菌):A condition free of viable pathogenic microorganisms.

autoantibody(自身抗体):An "anti-self antibody having an ffinity for tissue antigens of the subject in which it is formed. 

autoantigen(自身抗原): Molecules that are inherently part of self but are perceived by the immune system as foreign

autoimmune disease(自身免疫疾病):The pathologic condition arising from the production of antibodies against autoantigens. Example: rheumatoid arthritis. Also called autoimmunity

bacteriophage(噬菌体):A virus that specifically infects bacteria.

bacteriostatic(抑菌):Any process or agent that inhibits bacterial growth.

binary fission(二分裂):The formation of two new cells of approximately equal size as the result of parent cell division.

B lymphocyte (B cell): A white blood cell that gives rise to plasma cells and antibodies.

broad spectrum(广谱): A word to denote drugs that affect many different types of bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative.

Capsid(衣壳):The protein covering of a virus's nucleic acid core. Capsids exhibit symmetry due to the regular arrangement of subunits called capsomers.

capsomer(衣壳粒): A subunit of the virus capsid shaped as a triangle or disc.

capsule(荚膜): In bacteria, the loose, gel-like covering or slime made chiefly of simple polysaccharides. This layer is protective and can be associated with virulence.

Catabolism(分解代谢):The chemical breakdown of complex compounds into simpler units to be used in cell metabolism.

cell-mediated immune(细胞介导免疫): The type of immune responses brought about by T cells, such as cytotoxic, suppressor, and helper effects.

chemoautotroph(化能自养菌):An organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy and carbon dioxide for its carbon. Also called a chemolithotraph

chemotaxis(趋化性): The tendency of organisms to move in response to a chemical gradient (toward an attractant or to avoid adverse stimuli).

Chemotherapy(化学治疗剂):The use of chemical substances or drugs to treat or prevent disease.

Chitin(几丁质):A polysaccharide similar to cellulose in chemical structure. This polymer makes up the homy substance of the exoskeletons of arthropods and certain fungi

complement(补体):In immunology, serum protein components hat act in a definite sequence when set in motion either by an antigen-antibody complex or by factors of the alternative (properdin) pathway.

Conldia(分生孢子):Asexual fungal spores shed as free units from the tips of fertile hyphae. Conjugation(接合):In bacteria, the contact between donor and recipient cells associated with the transfer of genetic material such as plasmids. Can involvespecial (sex) pili. Also a form of sexual recombination in ciliated protozoans.

Colony(菌落): A macroscopic cluster of cells appearing on a solid medium, each arising from the multiplication of a single cell.

Contaminant(污染物):An impurity; any undesirable material or organism.

Culture(培养物):The visible accumulation of microorganisms in or on a nutrient medium. Also, the propagation of microorganisms with various media. curd

differential medium(鉴别培养基): A single substrate that discriminates between groups of microorganisms on the basis of differences in their appearance due to different chemical reactions.

differential stain(鉴别染色): A technique that utilizes two dyes to distinguish between different microbial groups or cell parts by color reaction.

Disinfection(消毒):The destruction of pathogenic nonsporulating microbes or their toxins, usually on inanimate surfaces.

ELISA(酶联免疫): Abbreviation for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a very sensitive serological test used to detect antibodies in diseases such as AIDS。

endospore(芽孢): A small, dormant, resistant derivative of a bacterial cell that germinates under favorable growth conditions into a vegetative cell. The bacterial genera Bacillus and Clostridiim are typical sporeformers.

endotoxin(内毒素): A bacterial intracellular toxin that is not ordinarily released (as is exotoxin). Endotoxin is composed of a phospholipid-polysaccharide complex that is an integral part of gram-negative bacterial cell walls. Endotoxins can cause severe shock and fever.

enriched medium(加富培养基): A nutrient medium supplemented with blood, serum, or some growth factor to promote the multiplication of fastidiousmicroorganisms.

enveloped virus(包膜病毒):A virus whose nucleocapsid is enclosed by a membrane derived in part from the host cell. It usually contains exposed glycoprotein spikes specific for the virus. essential nutrient(必须营养):Any ingredient such as a certain amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, or mineral that cannot be formed by an organism and must be supplied in the diet. A growth factor. eucaryotic cell(真核细胞): A cell that differs from a procaryotic cell chiefly by having a nuclear membrane (a well-defined nucleus), membrane-bound subcellular organdies, and mitotic cell division.

Exotoxin(外毒素):A toxin (usually protein) that is secreted and acts upon a specific cellular target. Examples: botulin, tetanospasmin, diphtheria toxin, and erythrogenic toxin.

Facultative(兼性的):Pertaining to the capacity of microbes to adapt or adjust to variations; not obligate. Example: The presence of oxygen is not obligatory for a facultative anaerobe to grow. 

Fermentation(发酵):The extraction of energy through anaerobic degradation of substrates into simpler, reduced metabolites. In large industrial processes, fermentation can mean any use of microbial metabolism to manufacture organic chemicals or other products.

Flagellum(鞭毛) -- Hair-like structure attached to a cell, used for locomotion in many protists and prokaryotes. The prokaryotic flagellum differs from the eukaryotic flagellum in that the prokaryotic flagellum is a solid unit composed primarily of the protein flagellin, while the eukaryotic flagellum is composed of several protein strands bound by a membrane, and does not contain flagellin. The eukaryotic flagellum is sometimes referred to as an undulipodium.

Genotype(表型):The genotype is ultimately responsible for an organism's phototype, or expressed characteristics.

Glycolysis(糖酵解):The energy-yielding breakdown (fermentation) of glucose to pyruvic or lactic acid. It is often called anaerobic glycolysis because no molecular oxygen is consumed in the degradation.

Gram stain(革兰氏染色):A differential stain for bacteria useful in identification and taxonomy. Gram-positive organisms appear purple from crystal violet-mordant retention; whereas gram-negative organisms appear red after loss of crystal violet and absorbance of the safranin counterstain.

Granulocyte(粒细胞):A mature leukocyte that contains noticeabte granules in a Wright stain. Examples: neutrophils, eoainophils, and basophils.

growth factor(生长因子): An organic compound such as a vitamin or amino acid that must be provided in the diet to facilitate growth. An essential nutrient.

Halophlle(嗜盐菌): A microbe whose growth is either stimulated by salt or requires a high concentration of salt for growth.

H antigen(H-抗原): The flagellar antigen of motile bacteria. H comes from the German word hauch that denotesthe appearance of speading growth on solid.

helper T cell(辅助T-细胞):A class of thymus-atimulated lymphocytes that facilitate various immune activities such as assisting B cells and macrophages. Also called a T helper cell.

Heterotroph(异养菌): An organism that relies upon organic compounds for its carbon and energy needs.

Immunity(免疫):An acquired resistance to an infectious agent due to prior contact with that agent.

immunogen(免疫原): Any substance that induces a state of sensitivity or resistance after processing by the immune system of the body.

immune system(免疫系统):One of the eleven major body organ systems in vertebrates; defends the internal environment against invading microorganisms and viruses and provides defense against the growth of cancer cells.

immunoglobulin(免疫球蛋白): The chemical class of proteins to which antibodies belong.

Inclusion(内含物): A relatively inert body in the cytoplasm such as storage granules, glycogen, fat, or some other aggregated metabolic product.

Infection(感染): The entry, establishment, and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host.

infectious disease(感染性疾病): The state of damage or toxicity in the body caused by an infectious agent.

Inflammation(发炎): A natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury that protects the host from further damage. It stimulates immune reactivity and blocks the spread of an infectious agent.

Inoculation(接种): The implantation of microorganisms into or upon culture media.

Interferon(干扰素): Naturally occurring polypeptides produced by fibroblasts and lymphocytes that can block viral replication and regulate a variety of immune reactions.

Isolation(分离): The separation of microbial cells by serial dilution or mechanical dispersion on solid media to achieve a clone or pure culture.

Latency(潜伏): The state of being inactive. Example: a latent virus or latent infection.

L form(L-型菌): L-phase variants; wall-less forms of some bacteria that are induced by drugs or chemicals.

Lipopolysaccharide(脂多糖,LPS): A molecular complex of lipid and carbohydrate found in the bacterial cell wall. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria is an endotoxin with generalized pathologic effects such as fever

Lysis(溶解): The physical rupture or deterioration of a cell. 

Lysogeny(溶原性): The indefinite persistence of bacteriophage DNA in a host without bringing about the production of virions. A lysogenic cell can revert to a lytic cycle, the process that ends in lysis.

lysosome (溶酶体):A cytoplasmic organelle containing lysozyme and other hydrolytic enzymes. lysozyme(溶菌酶): An enzyme that attacks the bonds on bacterial peptidoglycan. It is a natural defense found in tears and saliva.

macrophage A while blood cell derived from a monocyte that leaves the circulation and enters tissues. These cells are important in nonspecific

mixed culture(混合培养): A container growing two or more different, known species of microbes.

monoclonal antibody(单克隆抗体): An antibody produced by a clone of lymphocytes that respond to a particular antigenic determinant and generate identical antibodies only to that determinant. 

Monocyte(单核细胞): A large mononuclear leukocyte normally found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and loose connective tissue. This type of cell makes up 3% to 7% of circulating leukocytes.

Mutagen(诱变剂):Any agent that induces genetic mutation. Examples: certain chemical substances, ultraviolet,light, radioactivity.

Mutation(突变): A permanent inheritable alteration in the DNA sequence or content of a cell. Mycelium(菌丝体): The filamentous mass that makes up a mold. Composed of hyphae.

narrow spectrum(窄谱): Denotes drugs that are selective and limited in their effects. For example, they inhibit either gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria, but not both.

negative stain(负染色):A staining technique that renders the background opaque or colored and leaves the object unstained so that it is outlined as a colorless area 

nitrogen fixation(固氮):A process occurring in certain bacteria in which atmospheric Na gas is converted to a form (NH^ usable by plants.

Nucleocapsid(核衣壳): In viruses, the close physical combination of the nucleic acid with its protective covering.

Nucleoid(拟核):The basophilic nuclear region or nuclear body that contains the bacterial chromosome.

Nutrient(营养物质):Any chemical substance that must be provided to a cell for normal metabolism and growth. Macronutrients are required in large amounts, and micronutrients in small amounts.

Obligate(专性的): Without alternative; restricted to a particular characteristic. Example: An obligate parasite survives and grows only in a host; an obligate aerobe must have oxygen to grow; an obligate anaerobe is destroyed by oxygen.

Parasite(寄生): An organism that lives on or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection. The parasite produces some degree of harm in the host indirectly by donation of preformed immune substances (antibodies) produced in the body of another Individual.

Pasteurization(巴斯德消毒): Heat treatment of perishable fluids such as milk, fruit juices, or wine to destroy heat-sensitive vegetative cells, followed by rapid chilling to inhibit growth of survivors and germination of spores. It prevents infection and spoilage.

Pathogen(病原体):Any agent, usually a virus, bacterium, fungus, protozoan, or helminth, that causes disease.

Saprophytes(腐生型) Organisms that obtain their nutrients from decaying plants and animals. Saprophytes are important in recycling organic material.

Pathogenidty(致病性):The capacity of microbes to cause disease.

Pathology(病原学):The structural and physiological effects of disease on the body.

passive transport(被动扩散)Diffusion across a plasma membrane in which the cell expends no energy.

Penicillins(青霉素):A large group of naturally occurring and synthetic antibiotics produced by penicillium mold and active against the cell wall of bacteria.

Peptidoglycan(肽聚糖): A network of polysaccharide chains cross-linked by short peptides that forms the rigid part of bacterial cell walls. Gram-negative bacteria have a smaller amount of this rigid structure than do gram-positive bacteria.

Plasmids(质粒)Self-replicating, circular DNA molecules found in bacterial cells; often used as vectors in recombinant DNA technology. Small circles of double-stranded DNA found in some bacteria. Plasmids can carry from four to 20 genes. Plasmids are a commonly used vector in recombinant DNA studies.

periplasmic space(周质空间):The region between the cell wall and cell membrane of the cell envelopes of gram-negative bacteria.

Phage(噬菌体):A bacteriophage; a virus that specifically parasitizes bacteria.

Phenotype(表型): The observable characteristics of an organism produced by the interaction between its genetic potential (genotype) and the environment.

Photoautotroph(光能自养菌): An organism that utilizes light fa­ils energy and carbon dioxide chiefly for its' carbon needs.

Pilus(性丝) Projection from surface of a bacterial cell (F+) that can donate genetic material to another (F-).

prokaryote cell(原核细胞): A small, simple cell lacking a true nucleus, a nuclear envelope, and membrane-enclosed organelles

prophage(前噬菌体):A lysogenized bacteriophage; a phage that is latently incorporated into the host chromosome instead of undergoing, viral replication and lysis. prophylactic Any device, method, or substance used to prevent disease.

Protoplast(原生质体):A bacterial cell whose cell wall is completely kicking and that is vulnerable to osmotic lysis.

Pseudohypha(假菌丝):A chain of easily separated, spherical to sausage-shaped yeast cells partitioned by constrictions rather than by septa.

Psychrophile(嗜冷菌):A microorganism that thrives at low temperature (0°-20°C), with a temperature optimum of 0°-15°C.

respiratory chain(呼吸链):In cellular respiration, a series of electron-carrying molecules that transfers energy-rich electrons and protons to molecular oxygen. In transit, energy is extracted and conserved in the form of ATP.

reverse transcriptase(逆转录酶):The enzyme possessed by retroviruses that carries out the reversion of RNA to DNA—a form of reverse transcription.

SCP(单细胞蛋白):Abbreviation for single-cell protein, a euphemistic expression for microbial protein intended for human and animal consumption..

selective media(选择培养基): Nutrient media designed to favor the growth of certain microbes and to inhibit.

Serotyping(血清型):The subdivision of a species or subspecies into an immunologic type, based upon antigenic characteristics.

sexual reproduction(有性繁殖)A system of reproduction in which two haploid sex cells fuse to produce a diploid zygote.

Spheroplast(球形体): A gram-negative cell whose peptidoglycan, when digested by lysozyme,

remains intact but is osmotically vulnerable 

spike(刺突):A receptor on the surface of certain enveloped viruses that facilitates specific attachment to the host cell.

Spirillum(螺菌):A type of bacterial cell with a rigid spiral shape and external flagella.

Spirochete(螺旋体):A coiled, spiral-shaped bacterium that has endoflagella and flexes as it moves.

Sporangium(孢囊):A fungal cell in which asexual spores are formed by multiple cell cleavage. Sterilization(灭菌):Any process that completely removes or destroys all viable microorganisms, including viruses, from an object or habitat. Material so treated is sterile.

Strain(菌株):In microbiology, a set of descendants cloned from a common ancestor that retain the original characteristics. Any deviation from the original is a different strain.

subcellular vaccine(亚单位疫苗): A vaccine against isolated microbial antigens rather than against the entire organism.

superoxide ion(超氧离子): A toxic radical form oxygen metabolism 

suppressor T cell(抑制T细胞):A class of T cells that inhibits the actions of B cells and other T cells.

temperate phage(温和噬菌体):A bacteriophage that enters into a less virulent state by becoming incorporated into the host genome as a prophage instead of in the vegetative or lytic form that eventually destroys the cell.

thermal death point(致死温度):The lowest temperature that achieves sterilization in a given quantity of broth culture upon a 10-minute exposure. Examples:55°C for Escherichia coil. 60°C for

Mycobaaerium tuberculosis, and 120°C for spores.

thermal death time( 热致死时间):The least time required to kill all cells of a culture at a specified temperature.

Therrnophlle(嗜热菌):A microorganism that thrives at a temperature of 50°C or higher.

T lymphocyte (T cell):A white blood cell that is processed in the thymus gland and is involved in cell-mediated immunity.

Toxoid(类毒素):A toxin that has been rendered nontoxic but is still capable of eliciting the formation of protective antitoxin antibodies; used in vaccines.

Transduction(转导):The transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by means of a bacteriophage vector.

Transformation(转化):In microbial genetics, the transfer of genetic material contained in "naked" DNA fragments from a donor cell to a competent recipient cell.

Transposon(转座):A DNA segment with an insertion sequence at each end, enabling it to migrate to another plasmid, to the bacterial chromosome, or to a bacteriophage.

Vaccine(免疫法):Originally used in reference to inoculation with the cowpox or vaccinia virus to protect against smallpox. In general, the term now pertains to injection of whole microbes (killed or attenuated), toxoids, or parts of microbes as a prevention or cure for disease.

Virold(类病毒):An infectious agent that, unlike a virion, lacks a capsid and consists of a closed circular RNA molecule. Although known viroids are all plant pathogens, it is conceivable that animal versions exist.

Zygospore(接合孢子):A thick-walled sexual spore produced by the zygomycete fungi. It develops from the union of two hyphae, each bearing nuclei of opposite mating types. 






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