医学词汇总结:麻醉,心血管,儿,妇,骨,内,外,护理各科(中)

2016-06-16 MedSci MedSci原创

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常用微生物学专业名词词汇表 

active immunity(主动免疫): Immunity acquired through direct stimulation of the immune system by antigen.

active transport(主动运输):Transport of molecules against a concentration gradient (from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration) with the aid of proteins in the cell membrane and energy from ATP.

Alcohol fermentation(乙醇发酵):is the formation of alcohol from sugar. Yeast, when under anaerobic conditions, convert glucose to pyruvic acid via the glycolysis pathways, then go one step farther, converting pyruvic acid into ethanol, a C-2 compound.

aerobe(好氧微生物): A microorganism that lives and grows in the presence of free gaseous oxygen (O2).

aflatoxin(黄曲霉毒素): From Aspergillus flavus t, a mycotoxin that typically poisons moldy animal feed and can cause liver cancer in humans and other animals.

AIDS(爱滋病): Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome. The complex of signs and symptoms characteristic of the late phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. 

Ames test(艾姆氏实验): A method for detecting mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic agents based upon the genetic alteration of nutritionally defective bacteria 

anabolism(合成代谢): The energy consuming process of incorporating nutrients into protoplasm through biosynthesis.

anaerobe(厌氧微生物): A microorganism that grows best, or exclusively, in the absence of oxygen.

antibiotic(抗生素):A chemical substance from one microorganism that can inhibit or kill another microbe even in minute amounts.

antibody(抗体): A large protein molecule evoked in response to an antigen that interacts specifically with that antigen.

antigen(抗原): Any cell, particle, or chemical that induces a specific immune response by B cells or T cells and can stimulate resistance to an infection or a toxin.

antigenic determinant(抗原决定基):The precise molecular group of an antigen that defines its specificity and triggers the immune response.

antimetabolite(抗代谢物):A substance such as a drug that competes with, substitutes for, or interferes with a normal metabolite.

antiseptic(防腐剂):A growth-inhibiting agent used on tissues to prevent infection.

antiserum(抗血清):Antibody-rich serum derived from the blood of animals (deliberately immunized against infectious or toxic antigen) or from people who have recovered from specific nfections.

antitoxin(抗毒素):Globulin fraction of serum that neutralizesa specific toxin. Also refers to the specific antitoxin antibody itself.

arthrospore(节孢子):A fungal spore formed by the septation fragmentation of hyphae.

ascospore(子囊):A spore formed within a saclike cell (ascus) of Ascomycota following nuclear fusion and meiosis.

asepsis(无菌):A condition free of viable pathogenic microorganisms.

autoantibody(自身抗体):An "anti-self antibody having an ffinity for tissue antigens of the subject in which it is formed. 

autoantigen(自身抗原): Molecules that are inherently part of self but are perceived by the immune system as foreign

autoimmune disease(自身免疫疾病):The pathologic condition arising from the production of antibodies against autoantigens. Example: rheumatoid arthritis. Also called autoimmunity

bacteriophage(噬菌体):A virus that specifically infects bacteria.

bacteriostatic(抑菌):Any process or agent that inhibits bacterial growth.

binary fission(二分裂):The formation of two new cells of approximately equal size as the result of parent cell division.

B lymphocyte (B cell): A white blood cell that gives rise to plasma cells and antibodies.

broad spectrum(广谱): A word to denote drugs that affect many different types of bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative.

Capsid(衣壳):The protein covering of a virus's nucleic acid core. Capsids exhibit symmetry due to the regular arrangement of subunits called capsomers.

capsomer(衣壳粒): A subunit of the virus capsid shaped as a triangle or disc.

capsule(荚膜): In bacteria, the loose, gel-like covering or slime made chiefly of simple polysaccharides. This layer is protective and can be associated with virulence.

Catabolism(分解代谢):The chemical breakdown of complex compounds into simpler units to be used in cell metabolism.

cell-mediated immune(细胞介导免疫): The type of immune responses brought about by T cells, such as cytotoxic, suppressor, and helper effects.

chemoautotroph(化能自养菌):An organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy and carbon dioxide for its carbon. Also called a chemolithotraph

chemotaxis(趋化性): The tendency of organisms to move in response to a chemical gradient (toward an attractant or to avoid adverse stimuli).

Chemotherapy(化学治疗剂):The use of chemical substances or drugs to treat or prevent disease.

Chitin(几丁质):A polysaccharide similar to cellulose in chemical structure. This polymer makes up the homy substance of the exoskeletons of arthropods and certain fungi

complement(补体):In immunology, serum protein components hat act in a definite sequence when set in motion either by an antigen-antibody complex or by factors of the alternative (properdin) pathway.

Conldia(分生孢子):Asexual fungal spores shed as free units from the tips of fertile hyphae. Conjugation(接合):In bacteria, the contact between donor and recipient cells associated with the transfer of genetic material such as plasmids. Can involvespecial (sex) pili. Also a form of sexual recombination in ciliated protozoans.

Colony(菌落): A macroscopic cluster of cells appearing on a solid medium, each arising from the multiplication of a single cell.

Contaminant(污染物):An impurity; any undesirable material or organism.

Culture(培养物):The visible accumulation of microorganisms in or on a nutrient medium. Also, the propagation of microorganisms with various media. curd

differential medium(鉴别培养基): A single substrate that discriminates between groups of microorganisms on the basis of differences in their appearance due to different chemical reactions.

differential stain(鉴别染色): A technique that utilizes two dyes to distinguish between different microbial groups or cell parts by color reaction.

Disinfection(消毒):The destruction of pathogenic nonsporulating microbes or their toxins, usually on inanimate surfaces.

ELISA(酶联免疫): Abbreviation for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a very sensitive serological test used to detect antibodies in diseases such as AIDS。

endospore(芽孢): A small, dormant, resistant derivative of a bacterial cell that germinates under favorable growth conditions into a vegetative cell. The bacterial genera Bacillus and Clostridiim are typical sporeformers.

endotoxin(内毒素): A bacterial intracellular toxin that is not ordinarily released (as is exotoxin). Endotoxin is composed of a phospholipid-polysaccharide complex that is an integral part of gram-negative bacterial cell walls. Endotoxins can cause severe shock and fever.

enriched medium(加富培养基): A nutrient medium supplemented with blood, serum, or some growth factor to promote the multiplication of fastidiousmicroorganisms.

enveloped virus(包膜病毒):A virus whose nucleocapsid is enclosed by a membrane derived in part from the host cell. It usually contains exposed glycoprotein spikes specific for the virus. essential nutrient(必须营养):Any ingredient such as a certain amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, or mineral that cannot be formed by an organism and must be supplied in the diet. A growth factor. eucaryotic cell(真核细胞): A cell that differs from a procaryotic cell chiefly by having a nuclear membrane (a well-defined nucleus), membrane-bound subcellular organdies, and mitotic cell division.

Exotoxin(外毒素):A toxin (usually protein) that is secreted and acts upon a specific cellular target. Examples: botulin, tetanospasmin, diphtheria toxin, and erythrogenic toxin.

Facultative(兼性的):Pertaining to the capacity of microbes to adapt or adjust to variations; not obligate. Example: The presence of oxygen is not obligatory for a facultative anaerobe to grow. 

Fermentation(发酵):The extraction of energy through anaerobic degradation of substrates into simpler, reduced metabolites. In large industrial processes, fermentation can mean any use of microbial metabolism to manufacture organic chemicals or other products.

Flagellum(鞭毛) -- Hair-like structure attached to a cell, used for locomotion in many protists and prokaryotes. The prokaryotic flagellum differs from the eukaryotic flagellum in that the prokaryotic flagellum is a solid unit composed primarily of the protein flagellin, while the eukaryotic flagellum is composed of several protein strands bound by a membrane, and does not contain flagellin. The eukaryotic flagellum is sometimes referred to as an undulipodium.

Genotype(表型):The genotype is ultimately responsible for an organism's phototype, or expressed characteristics.

Glycolysis(糖酵解):The energy-yielding breakdown (fermentation) of glucose to pyruvic or lactic acid. It is often called anaerobic glycolysis because no molecular oxygen is consumed in the degradation.

Gram stain(革兰氏染色):A differential stain for bacteria useful in identification and taxonomy. Gram-positive organisms appear purple from crystal violet-mordant retention; whereas gram-negative organisms appear red after loss of crystal violet and absorbance of the safranin counterstain.

Granulocyte(粒细胞):A mature leukocyte that contains noticeabte granules in a Wright stain. Examples: neutrophils, eoainophils, and basophils.

growth factor(生长因子): An organic compound such as a vitamin or amino acid that must be provided in the diet to facilitate growth. An essential nutrient.

Halophlle(嗜盐菌): A microbe whose growth is either stimulated by salt or requires a high concentration of salt for growth.

H antigen(H-抗原): The flagellar antigen of motile bacteria. H comes from the German word hauch that denotesthe appearance of speading growth on solid.

helper T cell(辅助T-细胞):A class of thymus-atimulated lymphocytes that facilitate various immune activities such as assisting B cells and macrophages. Also called a T helper cell.

Heterotroph(异养菌): An organism that relies upon organic compounds for its carbon and energy needs.

Immunity(免疫):An acquired resistance to an infectious agent due to prior contact with that agent.

immunogen(免疫原): Any substance that induces a state of sensitivity or resistance after processing by the immune system of the body.

immune system(免疫系统):One of the eleven major body organ systems in vertebrates; defends the internal environment against invading microorganisms and viruses and provides defense against the growth of cancer cells.

immunoglobulin(免疫球蛋白): The chemical class of proteins to which antibodies belong.

Inclusion(内含物): A relatively inert body in the cytoplasm such as storage granules, glycogen, fat, or some other aggregated metabolic product.

Infection(感染): The entry, establishment, and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host.

infectious disease(感染性疾病): The state of damage or toxicity in the body caused by an infectious agent.

Inflammation(发炎): A natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury that protects the host from further damage. It stimulates immune reactivity and blocks the spread of an infectious agent.

Inoculation(接种): The implantation of microorganisms into or upon culture media.

Interferon(干扰素): Naturally occurring polypeptides produced by fibroblasts and lymphocytes that can block viral replication and regulate a variety of immune reactions.

Isolation(分离): The separation of microbial cells by serial dilution or mechanical dispersion on solid media to achieve a clone or pure culture.

Latency(潜伏): The state of being inactive. Example: a latent virus or latent infection.

L form(L-型菌): L-phase variants; wall-less forms of some bacteria that are induced by drugs or chemicals.

Lipopolysaccharide(脂多糖,LPS): A molecular complex of lipid and carbohydrate found in the bacterial cell wall. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria is an endotoxin with generalized pathologic effects such as fever

Lysis(溶解): The physical rupture or deterioration of a cell. 

Lysogeny(溶原性): The indefinite persistence of bacteriophage DNA in a host without bringing about the production of virions. A lysogenic cell can revert to a lytic cycle, the process that ends in lysis.

lysosome (溶酶体):A cytoplasmic organelle containing lysozyme and other hydrolytic enzymes. lysozyme(溶菌酶): An enzyme that attacks the bonds on bacterial peptidoglycan. It is a natural defense found in tears and saliva.

macrophage A while blood cell derived from a monocyte that leaves the circulation and enters tissues. These cells are important in nonspecific

mixed culture(混合培养): A container growing two or more different, known species of microbes.

monoclonal antibody(单克隆抗体): An antibody produced by a clone of lymphocytes that respond to a particular antigenic determinant and generate identical antibodies only to that determinant. 

Monocyte(单核细胞): A large mononuclear leukocyte normally found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and loose connective tissue. This type of cell makes up 3% to 7% of circulating leukocytes.

Mutagen(诱变剂):Any agent that induces genetic mutation. Examples: certain chemical substances, ultraviolet,light, radioactivity.

Mutation(突变): A permanent inheritable alteration in the DNA sequence or content of a cell. Mycelium(菌丝体): The filamentous mass that makes up a mold. Composed of hyphae.

narrow spectrum(窄谱): Denotes drugs that are selective and limited in their effects. For example, they inhibit either gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria, but not both.

negative stain(负染色):A staining technique that renders the background opaque or colored and leaves the object unstained so that it is outlined as a colorless area 

nitrogen fixation(固氮):A process occurring in certain bacteria in which atmospheric Na gas is converted to a form (NH^ usable by plants.

Nucleocapsid(核衣壳): In viruses, the close physical combination of the nucleic acid with its protective covering.

Nucleoid(拟核):The basophilic nuclear region or nuclear body that contains the bacterial chromosome.

Nutrient(营养物质):Any chemical substance that must be provided to a cell for normal metabolism and growth. Macronutrients are required in large amounts, and micronutrients in small amounts.

Obligate(专性的): Without alternative; restricted to a particular characteristic. Example: An obligate parasite survives and grows only in a host; an obligate aerobe must have oxygen to grow; an obligate anaerobe is destroyed by oxygen.

Parasite(寄生): An organism that lives on or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection. The parasite produces some degree of harm in the host indirectly by donation of preformed immune substances (antibodies) produced in the body of another Individual.

Pasteurization(巴斯德消毒): Heat treatment of perishable fluids such as milk, fruit juices, or wine to destroy heat-sensitive vegetative cells, followed by rapid chilling to inhibit growth of survivors and germination of spores. It prevents infection and spoilage.

Pathogen(病原体):Any agent, usually a virus, bacterium, fungus, protozoan, or helminth, that causes disease.

Saprophytes(腐生型) Organisms that obtain their nutrients from decaying plants and animals. Saprophytes are important in recycling organic material.

Pathogenidty(致病性):The capacity of microbes to cause disease.

Pathology(病原学):The structural and physiological effects of disease on the body.

passive transport(被动扩散)Diffusion across a plasma membrane in which the cell expends no energy.

Penicillins(青霉素):A large group of naturally occurring and synthetic antibiotics produced by penicillium mold and active against the cell wall of bacteria.

Peptidoglycan(肽聚糖): A network of polysaccharide chains cross-linked by short peptides that forms the rigid part of bacterial cell walls. Gram-negative bacteria have a smaller amount of this rigid structure than do gram-positive bacteria.

Plasmids(质粒)Self-replicating, circular DNA molecules found in bacterial cells; often used as vectors in recombinant DNA technology. Small circles of double-stranded DNA found in some bacteria. Plasmids can carry from four to 20 genes. Plasmids are a commonly used vector in recombinant DNA studies.

periplasmic space(周质空间):The region between the cell wall and cell membrane of the cell envelopes of gram-negative bacteria.

Phage(噬菌体):A bacteriophage; a virus that specifically parasitizes bacteria.

Phenotype(表型): The observable characteristics of an organism produced by the interaction between its genetic potential (genotype) and the environment.

Photoautotroph(光能自养菌): An organism that utilizes light fa­ils energy and carbon dioxide chiefly for its' carbon needs.

Pilus(性丝) Projection from surface of a bacterial cell (F+) that can donate genetic material to another (F-).

prokaryote cell(原核细胞): A small, simple cell lacking a true nucleus, a nuclear envelope, and membrane-enclosed organelles

prophage(前噬菌体):A lysogenized bacteriophage; a phage that is latently incorporated into the host chromosome instead of undergoing, viral replication and lysis. prophylactic Any device, method, or substance used to prevent disease.

Protoplast(原生质体):A bacterial cell whose cell wall is completely kicking and that is vulnerable to osmotic lysis.

Pseudohypha(假菌丝):A chain of easily separated, spherical to sausage-shaped yeast cells partitioned by constrictions rather than by septa.

Psychrophile(嗜冷菌):A microorganism that thrives at low temperature (0°-20°C), with a temperature optimum of 0°-15°C.

respiratory chain(呼吸链):In cellular respiration, a series of electron-carrying molecules that transfers energy-rich electrons and protons to molecular oxygen. In transit, energy is extracted and conserved in the form of ATP.

reverse transcriptase(逆转录酶):The enzyme possessed by retroviruses that carries out the reversion of RNA to DNA—a form of reverse transcription.

SCP(单细胞蛋白):Abbreviation for single-cell protein, a euphemistic expression for microbial protein intended for human and animal consumption..

selective media(选择培养基): Nutrient media designed to favor the growth of certain microbes and to inhibit.

Serotyping(血清型):The subdivision of a species or subspecies into an immunologic type, based upon antigenic characteristics.

sexual reproduction(有性繁殖)A system of reproduction in which two haploid sex cells fuse to produce a diploid zygote.

Spheroplast(球形体): A gram-negative cell whose peptidoglycan, when digested by lysozyme,

remains intact but is osmotically vulnerable 

spike(刺突):A receptor on the surface of certain enveloped viruses that facilitates specific attachment to the host cell.

Spirillum(螺菌):A type of bacterial cell with a rigid spiral shape and external flagella.

Spirochete(螺旋体):A coiled, spiral-shaped bacterium that has endoflagella and flexes as it moves.

Sporangium(孢囊):A fungal cell in which asexual spores are formed by multiple cell cleavage. Sterilization(灭菌):Any process that completely removes or destroys all viable microorganisms, including viruses, from an object or habitat. Material so treated is sterile.

Strain(菌株):In microbiology, a set of descendants cloned from a common ancestor that retain the original characteristics. Any deviation from the original is a different strain.

subcellular vaccine(亚单位疫苗): A vaccine against isolated microbial antigens rather than against the entire organism.

superoxide ion(超氧离子): A toxic radical form oxygen metabolism 

suppressor T cell(抑制T细胞):A class of T cells that inhibits the actions of B cells and other T cells.

temperate phage(温和噬菌体):A bacteriophage that enters into a less virulent state by becoming incorporated into the host genome as a prophage instead of in the vegetative or lytic form that eventually destroys the cell.

thermal death point(致死温度):The lowest temperature that achieves sterilization in a given quantity of broth culture upon a 10-minute exposure. Examples:55°C for Escherichia coil. 60°C for

Mycobaaerium tuberculosis, and 120°C for spores.

thermal death time( 热致死时间):The least time required to kill all cells of a culture at a specified temperature.

Therrnophlle(嗜热菌):A microorganism that thrives at a temperature of 50°C or higher.

T lymphocyte (T cell):A white blood cell that is processed in the thymus gland and is involved in cell-mediated immunity.

Toxoid(类毒素):A toxin that has been rendered nontoxic but is still capable of eliciting the formation of protective antitoxin antibodies; used in vaccines.

Transduction(转导):The transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by means of a bacteriophage vector.

Transformation(转化):In microbial genetics, the transfer of genetic material contained in "naked" DNA fragments from a donor cell to a competent recipient cell.

Transposon(转座):A DNA segment with an insertion sequence at each end, enabling it to migrate to another plasmid, to the bacterial chromosome, or to a bacteriophage.

Vaccine(免疫法):Originally used in reference to inoculation with the cowpox or vaccinia virus to protect against smallpox. In general, the term now pertains to injection of whole microbes (killed or attenuated), toxoids, or parts of microbes as a prevention or cure for disease.

Virold(类病毒):An infectious agent that, unlike a virion, lacks a capsid and consists of a closed circular RNA molecule. Although known viroids are all plant pathogens, it is conceivable that animal versions exist.

Zygospore(接合孢子):A thick-walled sexual spore produced by the zygomycete fungi. It develops from the union of two hyphae, each bearing nuclei of opposite mating types. 

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实验仪器名称中英文对照表 

仪器中文名称 仪器英文名称(缩写) 
原子发射光谱仪 Atomic Emission Spectrometer(AES)
电感偶合等离子体发射光谱仪 Inductive Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer(ICP) 
直流等离子体发射光谱仪 Direct Current Plasma Emission Spectrometer(DCP)
紫外-可见光分光光度计 UV-Visible Spectrophotometer(UV-Vis) 
微波等离子体光谱仪 Microwave Inductive Plasma Emission Spectrometer(MIP)
原子吸收光谱仪 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS)
原子荧光光谱仪 Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy(AFS) 
傅里叶变换红外光谱仪 FT-IR Spectrometer(FTIR) 
傅里叶变换拉曼光谱仪 FT-Raman Spectrometer(FTIR-Raman)
气相色谱仪 Gas Chromatograph(GC) 
高压/效液相色谱仪 High Pressure/Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC) 
离子色谱仪 Ion Chromatograph 
凝胶渗透色谱仪 Gel Permeation Chromatograph(GPC) 
体积排阻色谱 Size Exclusion Chromatograph(SEC) 
X射线荧光光谱仪 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer(XRF) 
X射线衍射仪 X-Ray Diffractomer(XRD) 
同位素X荧光光谱仪 Isotope X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer 
电子能谱仪 Electron Energy Disperse Spectroscopy 
能谱仪 Energy Disperse Spectroscopy(EDS) 
质谱仪 Mass Spectrometer(MS) 
ICP-质谱联用仪 ICP-MS 
气相色谱-质谱联用仪 GC-MS 
液相色谱-质谱联用仪 LC-MS 
核磁共振波谱仪 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer(NMR) 
电子顺磁共振波谱仪 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrometer(ESR) 
极谱仪 Polarograph 
伏安仪 Voltammerter 
自动滴定仪 Automatic Titrator 
电导仪 Conductivity Meter 
pH计 pH Meter 
水质分析仪 Water Test Kits 
电泳仪 Electrophoresis System 
表面科学 Surface Science 
电子显微镜 Electro Microscopy 
光学显微镜 Optical Microscopy 
金相显微镜 Metallurgical Microscopy 
扫描探针显微镜 Scanning Probe Microscopy 
表面分析仪 Surface Analyzer 
无损检测仪 Instrument for Nondestructive Testing 
物性分析 Physical Property Analysis 
热分析仪 Thermal Analyzer 
粘度计 Viscometer 
流变仪 Rheometer 
粒度分析仪 Particle Size Analyzer 
热物理性能测定仪 Thermal Physical Property Tester 
电性能测定仪 Electrical Property Tester 
光学性能测定仪 Optical Property Tester 
机械性能测定仪 Mechanical Property Tester 
燃烧性能测定仪 Combustion Property Tester 
老化性能测定仪 Aging Property Tester 
生物技术分析 Biochemical analysis 
PCR仪 Instrument for Polymerase Chain Reaction 
DNA及蛋白质的测序和合成仪 Sequencers and Synthesizers for DNA and Protein 
传感器 Sensors 
其他 Other/Miscellaneous 
流动分析与过程分析 Flow Analytical and Process Analytical Chemistry 
气体分析 Gas Analysis 
基本物理量测定 Basic Physics 
样品处理 Sample Handling 
金属/材料元素分析仪 Metal/material elemental analysis 
环境成分分析仪 CHN Analysis 
发酵罐 Fermenter 
生物反应器 Bio-reactor 
摇床 Shaker 
离心机 Centrifuge 
超声破碎仪 Ultrasonic Cell Disruptor 
超低温冰箱 Ultra-low Temperature Freezer 
恒温循环泵 Constant Temperature Circulator 
超滤器 Ultrahigh Purity Filter 
冻干机 Freeze Drying Equipment 
部分收集器 Fraction Collector 
氨基酸测序仪 Protein Sequencer 
氨基酸组成分析仪 Amino Acid Analyzer 
多肽合成仪 Peptide synthesizer 
DNA测序仪 DNA Sequencers
DNA合成仪 DNA synthesizer
紫外观察灯 Ultraviolet Lamp
分子杂交仪 Hybridization Oven
PCR仪 PCR Amplifier
化学发光仪 Chemiluminescence Apparatus
紫外检测仪 Ultraviolet Detector
电泳 Electrophoresis
酶标仪 ELIASA 
CO2培养箱 CO2 Incubators 
倒置显微镜 Inverted Microscope
超净工作台 Bechtop 
流式细胞仪 Flow Cytometer
微生物自动分析系统 Automatic Analyzer for Microbes
生化分析仪 Biochemical Analyzer
血气分析仪 Blood-gas Analyzer
电解质分析仪 Electrolytic Analyzer
尿液分析仪 Urine Analyzer
临床药物浓度仪 Analyzer for Clinic Medicine Concentration
血球计数器 Hematocyte Counter 

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澳洲医院常用术语缩写
AB-antibiotics
ABG-arterial blood gas
ATO-alert & orientated
AFO-ankle-foot orthosis
pt-patient
PAC-pressure area care
PCA-Patient-controlled Analgesis
Obs-observation
BO-bowel opened
BNO-Bowel not opened
cont-continue
DDA-dangrous drug administration
PS-pain scale
SS-sedation scale
med-medication
Ted stocking -Anti-embolism stockings 
SOB-short of breath
SOOB-set out of bed
RIB-rest in bed
I/O-input/output
BSL-blood sugar level
BGL-blood glucose level
FBC-fluid balance chart
FWD-full ward diet
MO-medical officer
GP-general practitioner
APS-acute pain service
SE-side effect
Mob-mobility
T.D.S-tid
D/C-discharge
rehab-rehabilitation
NKDA-nil known drug allergies
Neb-nebulizer
MOW-meel on wheels
RTW-return to ward
CMP machine-continous passive motion machive
CPAP-continous positive airway pressure
GA-general anaesthesia
IDC-indwelling cather
IVT-I.V infusion
jelco留置针 bung-肝素帽
TKP-total knee replacement
THR-Total hip replacement
ABD: abdomen
ADL: activity of daily living
AF: artial fibrillation/ atrial flutter
ASAP: as soon as possible
APPT: APPOINTMENT
AXR: ABDOMINAL X-RAY
BA: BOWEL ACTION
Bx: BIOPSY
Ca: CARCINOMA
CABG: CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT
CAVG: CORONARY ARTERY VENOUS GRAFT
CBD: COMMON BILE DUCT
CCF: CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE
CHOL: CHOLESTEROL
CNS: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
C/O: COMPLAIN OF
COAD: CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAYS DISEASE
CPR: CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION
C&S: CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY
CVA: CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT
CXR: CHEST X-RAY
DU: DUODENAL ULCER
DVT: DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS
Dx: DIAGNOSIS
ECHO: ECHOCARDIOGRAM
OP osteoporosis
LAP laparoscopy
TET--TOX tetanus toxoid 
HT hypertention
LIH left inquinia hernia
AWD alcohol withdraw 
NFO no further ooze
SL slighyly
BX biopsy

Turp, MI, APO,CHF,CCF,OA, RA,MRSA,GTN,CAD,GIT,DVT,PE,NG tube,ICP,GCS,TPN等等简称都很容易查到。用heparin治疗的病人要监测aptt,用warfarin治疗的病人要监测INR.这些大家以后来到临床,都经常要做得啦! 

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Word Building (构词法) 
人体主要器官前缀(Prefixes for major organs of the body)

名称 通用名 前缀 常用形容词 示例

心 heart cardio- cardial cardium / carditis / cardiology

脑 brain encepholo- cerebral cerebrum / encephalitis / encephalology

肺 lung pulmo- pulmonary pulmonitis / pulmonectomy / pulmonology

肝 liver hepato- hepatic hepatitis / hepatobiliary / hepatology

胃 stomach gastro- gastric gastritis / gastrointestinal / gastrology

胆 gallbladder chole- biliary cholecystitis / cholinergic / cholecystectomy

肠 intestine entero- intestinal enteritis / enterectomy / enterology /

脾 spleen spleno- splenic splenitis / splenectomy / splenology

胰 pancreas pancreato- pancreatic pancreatitis / pancreatectomy / pancreatopathy

肾 kidney nephro- renal /nephric nephritis / nephropathy / nephrology

医、护、药、研究、技术、实验系列专业职称 
(Professional titles in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, research, technology and experiment series)

医士 Assistant doctor 护工 Orderly

住院医师 Resident 护士 Nurse; nurse aide

住院总医师 Chief resident 护师 Nurse practitioner

主治医师 Attending doctor 主管护师 Nurse-in-charge

/ visiting doctor / doctor-in-charge

副主任医师 Associate senior doctor 副主任护师 Associate senior nurse

主任医师 Full senior doctor 主任护师 Full senior nurse

药士 Assistant pharmacist 技士 Technician

药师 Pharmacist 技师 Technologist

主管药师 Pharmacist-in-charge 主管技师 Technologist-in-charge

副主任药师 Associate senior pharmacist 副主任技师 Associate senior technologist

主任药师 Full senior pharmacist 主任技师 Full senior technologist

研究实习员 Research assistant 实验员 Laboratory technician

助理研究员 Research associate 助理实验师 Assistant experimentalist

/ assistant research fellow

副研究员 Associate research fellow 实验师 Experimentalist

研究员 Research fellow 高级实验师 Senior experimentalist

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语结构句型佳句

1. According to a recent survey, four million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking. 
  依照最近的一项调查,每年有4,000,000人死于与吸烟有关的疾病。 

  2. The latest surveys show that quite a few children have unpleasant associations with homework. 
  最近的调查显示相当多的孩子对家庭作业没什么好感。 

  3. No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet. 
  没有一项发明像互联网一样同时受到如此多的赞扬和批评。 

  4. People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation. 
  人们似乎忽视了教育不应该随着毕业而结束这一事实。 

  5. An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education is not complete with graduation. 
  越来越多的人开始意识到教育不能随着毕业而结束。 

  6. When it comes to education, the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study. 
  说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习。 

  7. Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person's physical fitness. 
  许多专家指出体育锻炼直接有助于身体健康。 

  8. Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and the great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism. 
  应该采取适当的措施限制外国旅游者的数量,努力保护当地环境和历史不受国际旅游业的不利影响。 

  9. An increasing number of experts believe that migrants will exert positive effects on construction of city. However, this opinion is now being questioned by more and more city residents, who complain that the migrants have brought many serious problems like crime and prostitution. 
  越来越多的专家相信移民对城市的建设起到积极作用。然而,越来越多的城市居民却怀疑这种说法,他们抱怨民工给城市带来了许多严重的问题,像犯罪和卖淫。 

  10. Many city residents complain that it is so few buses in their city that they have to spend much more time waiting for a bus, which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers. 
  许多市民抱怨城市的公交车太少,以至于他们要花很长时间等一辆公交车,而车上可能已满载乘客。 

  11. There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem: the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it. 
  无可否认,空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。 

  12. An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude toward retirement. 
  一项调查显示妇女欢迎退休。 
  12a. A proper part-time job does not occupy students' too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 
  一份适当的业余工作并不会占用学生太多的时间,事实上,把全部的时间都用到学习上并不健康,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。 

  14. Any government, which is blind to this point, may pay a heavy price. 
  任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。 

  15.Nowadays, many students always go into raptures at the mere mention of the coming life of high school or college they will begin. Unfortunately, for most young people, it is not pleasant experience on their first day on campus. 
  当前,一提到即将开始的学校生活,许多学生都会兴高采烈。然而,对多数年轻人来说,校园刚开始的日子并不是什么愉快的经历。 

  16. In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse. 
  考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施。 

  17. The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets. 
  大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的。 

  18. It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to face the dangers of starvation and exposure. 
  无可争辩,现在有成千上万的人仍过着挨饿受冻的痛苦生活。 

  19. Although this view is wildly held, this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place. 
  尽管这一观点被广泛接受,很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点、任何年龄进行。 

  20. No one can deny the fact that a person's education is the most important aspect of his life. 
  没有人能否认:教育是人生最重要的一方面。 

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