Rectification at Graphene-Semiconductor Interfaces: Zero-Gap Semiconductor-Based Diodes
Tongay, S; Lemaitre, M; Miao, X; Gila, B; Appleton, BR; Hebard, AF
Tongay, S (reprint author), Univ Florida, Dept Phys, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.
Using current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and electric-field-modulated Raman measurements, we report on the unique physics and promising technical applications associated with the formation of Schottky barriers at the interface of a one-atom-thick zero-gap semiconductor (graphene) and conventional semiconductors. When chemical-vapor-deposited graphene is transferred onto n-type Si, GaAs, 4H-SiC, and GaN semiconductor substrates, there is a strong van-der-Waals attraction that is accompanied by charge transfer across the interface and the formation of a rectifying (Schottky) barrier. Thermionic-emission theory in conjunction with the Schottky-Mott model within the context of bond-polarization theory provides a surprisingly good description of the electrical properties. Applications can be made to sensors, where in forward bias there is exponential sensitivity to changes in the Schottky-barrier height due to the presence of absorbates on the graphene, and to analog devices, for which Schottky barriers are integral components. Such applications are promising because of graphene's mechanical stability, its resistance to diffusion, its robustness at high temperatures, and its demonstrated capability to embrace multiple functionalities.
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