和男性生活寿命会变短?PNAS:和“精力旺盛”却不育的雄鼠在一起,雌鼠更短命

2022-06-01 四五七 MedSci原创

PNAS:交配也是一种资源损耗,在生命前期频繁交配而不生育对寿命的影响比生育还大!

男性是女性通往长寿之路的绊脚石,不婚不育芳龄永继,从生物进化的生存-繁殖权衡角度来说,确实如此。

个体拥有的“资源”是有限的,当把资源过多投入到繁殖中,用于生存维护的资源就相应减少,损伤修复能力下降,进而导致衰老和寿命缩短。

每一次的怀孕和哺乳对母体而言,都是巨大的消耗,“生育次数越多,衰老越快,寿命折损越大”的现象出现在许多物种中。

那有的小可爱就要问了:那我不生育,只享受繁衍的过程行不行呀,没有儿孙我享福,还能长寿,岂不是美滋滋?

唔…怕是要让你失望了,因为来自新西兰奥塔哥(Otago)大学的研究团队发表在PNAS上的一项研究证明:交配也是一种资源损耗,在生命前期频繁交配而不生育对寿命的影响比生育还大(多么痛彻心扉的领悟!)

该研究以“Mating in the absence of fertilization promotes a growth-reproduction versus lifespan trade-off in female mice”为题,发表于PNAS。

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为了研究在雌鼠生命前期(出生后28-300天)不同的繁衍条件对其生长、后期生育能力及寿命的影响,研究人员为雌鼠设计了以下几种同居情况。

  • 雌鼠+雌鼠同居(Female):实验的对照组。

  • 雌鼠+完整雄鼠同居(Intact):雌鼠可完成交配、怀孕、哺乳一整套繁殖过程。

  • 雌鼠+不育雄鼠同居(Vasectomized):不育雄鼠输精管被切除,精液中没有精子,雄激素水平正常,可交配,但不能使雌鼠怀孕。

  • 雌鼠+阉割雄鼠同居(Castrated):阉割雄鼠体内缺乏雄激素,不交配、不能使雌鼠怀孕。

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接下来,让我们一起看看不同的繁殖条件对雌鼠造成了什么样的影响!

 

生命前期不同的繁衍条件对雌鼠生长情况的影响

和没有交配行为的雌鼠相比,有交配行为的雌鼠体重更重,特别是与完整雄鼠同居的雌鼠,体重增长最明显(毕竟经历了怀孕和哺乳,吃得多体重上涨可以理解),但是,和不育雄鼠同居的雌鼠,在第6个月时体重竟然也比对照组重了快20%,说明交配这一行为会让雌鼠变胖!

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前期繁衍影响后期生育能力

生物在生存-繁殖权衡之外,还有现时-未来繁殖之间的权衡,为了研究生命前期不同的繁衍条件对雌鼠后期生育能力的影响,在300天同居结束后,研究人员将每组取出一部分雌鼠与年轻力壮、能生育的雄鼠放一起,看看各组雌鼠的后期阶段的生育能力。

嚯!好家伙,这一下可不得了,之前没有生育的雌鼠可算有了生育的机会,特别是和不育雄鼠同居的雌鼠,那是生得又快又多。与之相反,在生命前期与完整雄鼠同居的雌鼠,在后期生育能力下降最为迅速。

也就是说,在前期经历了怀孕和哺乳的雌鼠,后期在繁殖上分配到的资源就会减少,而前期没有繁殖的雌鼠,后期生育能力就得到保留。

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前期与不育雄鼠同居的雌鼠,寿命缩短最显著

已有研究证明终生生育会缩短雌鼠寿命,但本研究中仅涉及前期不同繁殖条件对雌鼠寿命的影响,各组雌鼠在同居300天后,每组取出一部分研究雌鼠与雌鼠同居,相当于这些用于测量寿命的雌鼠最多只在鼠生前1/3阶段能够生育,在后期不再进行任何繁殖相关活动。

结果显示,在所有组中,前期与不育雄鼠同居的雌鼠寿命是最短的,而与完整雄鼠同居的雌鼠,虽然总体寿命长度与对照组相比略有减少,但并未达到统计学差异(P=0.14)

由此,研究人员得出:在生命前期频繁交配而不生育将对雌鼠寿命产生不利影响,而前期生育并不会造成雌鼠寿命显著缩短。

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本研究最终并未探明只交配不生育对雌鼠寿命产生影响的机制,但研究人员提出了以下猜测:

一是与不育小鼠同居虽然不会导致雌鼠真怀孕,但交配行为刺激雌鼠产生类似早期怀孕的神经内分泌反应(假孕),特别是催乳素的分泌。如果说与完整雄鼠同居的雌鼠在怀孕期间(21天)还能歇一歇暂停交配,那么与不育雄鼠同居的雌鼠,假孕期(12天)一过又迅速进入发情期,然后又交配进入假孕期,周而复始,不管是交配还是假孕的频率都要高于与完整雄鼠同居组,“资源”当然就耗费得多了。

二是精液中的含有的“有毒蛋白”对雌鼠寿命造成影响,早在1995年,科学家就发现雄果蝇精液中含有一些成分(后来被称为副腺蛋白,accessory gland proteins)会缩短与之交配的雌果蝇的寿命,促进其排卵,降低雌果蝇之后的交配能力,杀死雌果蝇体内先前雄果蝇留下的精子。因此,如果雄鼠精液中也有类似的蛋白质,那么正如上一条所说的,与不育雄鼠同居的雌鼠,交配频率是增加的,“中毒”次数多了,寿命就缩短。

总的来说,本研究将交配行为从整个繁殖行为中剥离,证明除了怀孕和哺乳外,交配也是一种资源损耗,生命前期的频繁交配甚至比生育对雌鼠寿命缩短影响更大。

看来想获得长寿,还得先断情绝爱,嗯…但也并不是所有人都愿意灭人欲求永生啦,比如:

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(来自网络街头采访视频

 

参考资料
[1]Garratt M, Try H, Smiley KO, Grattan DR, Brooks RC. Mating in the absence of fertilization promotes a growth-reproduction versus lifespan trade-off in female mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(27):15748-15754. doi:10.1073/pnas.2003159117
[2]Chapman T, Liddle LF, Kalb JM, Wolfner MF, Partridge L. Cost of mating in Drosophila melanogaster females is mediated by male accessory gland products. Nature. 1995;373(6511):241-244. doi:10.1038/373241a0

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    2023-02-06 drwjr
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    2022-06-02 qindq
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    2022-06-01 ms7000000976748494

    😹一个悲伤的故事

    0

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    2022-06-01 xulv123

    认真学习~~

    0

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    2022-06-01 ms6000000960504356

    不错的文章

    0

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