Nat Cell Biol:新研究阐释不对称细胞分裂与衰老之间的关系

2019-10-03 佚名 细胞

最近,来自Seville大学(CABIMER)的研究人员发现了一种新的,可以用于解释解发生不对称细胞分裂的细胞的过早衰老的机制。这对于研究并预测与衰老相关的疾病(例如癌症和神经退行性疾病)的发展非常有用。该研究发表在最新一期的《Nature Cell Biology》杂志上。

最近,来自Seville大学(CABIMER)的研究人员发现了一种新的,可以用于解释解发生不对称细胞分裂的细胞的过早衰老的机制。这对于研究并预测与衰老相关的疾病(例如癌症和神经退行性疾病)的发展非常有用。该研究发表在最新一期的《Nature Cell Biology》杂志上。

在不对称分裂过程中,所得细胞具有不同的形态和大小,不同的细胞内容物含量以及与不同的活力。

“非对称分裂的最典型例子是母细胞,它可以在每次分裂后再生,同时产生出更多的专门性的细胞,从而可以形成不同类型的组织。母细胞的数量的稳态是维持组织结构的基础。这些细胞的数量的降低则会导致组织混乱和过早老化,而过多的母细胞会导致组织增生或肿瘤的发生。”文章作者 Fernando Monie Casas说道。

细胞分裂过程中的基本结构是微管组织中心(MTOC),它组织有丝分裂纺锤体的形成,并调控染色体在有丝分裂中均匀分布制。平常状态下细胞只有一个MTOC,它在细胞分裂过程中被复制。复制后,原始MTOC和新生成的MTOC在大小,组成和年龄上会有所不同,有丝分裂结束后,它们会在分裂产生的细胞之间共享。

“奇怪的是,在某些细胞不对称分裂过程中,这一结构会以既定的,而非随机的模式继承。” Monje Casa补充说。

该研究阐释了MTOC的不对称遗传如何影响细胞内各类分子和细胞器在母细胞和子细胞之间的不同分布,这对于维持酵母的寿命至关重要。

MTOC在母细胞中的不对称分布涉及到衰老相关的疾病(例如癌症或神经退行性过程)的发展。此外,对于某些遗传性疾病,例如常染色体隐性原发性小头畸形(这种疾病特别有趣,这种罕见疾病的特征是神经发育过程中出现问题,导致头部和大脑异常小),该疾病与多达十二种不同的基因有关,其中大多数与形成有丝分裂纺锤体的MTOC的功能有关,这为研究该综合征的起源以及治疗提供了线索。

原始出处:
Javier Manzano-López, Laura Matellán, Alejandra álvarez-Llamas, José Carlos Blanco-Mira, Fernando Monje-Casas. Asymmetric inheritance of spindle microtubule-organizing centres preserves replicative lifespan. Nature Cell Biology, 2019; 21 (8): 952 DOI: 10.1038/s41556-019-0364-8

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    2020-03-26 维他命
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    2019-12-05 zhouqu_8
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    2020-05-23 sunylz
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    2019-11-20 liye789132251
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Nature:科学家解析控制细胞分裂的新型分子机制

近日,一项刊登在国际杂志Nature上的一篇研究报告中,来自苏黎世大学的科学家们通过研究阐明了细胞分裂的新型控制机制。正如每个厨师都会经历一样,当将香醋和橄榄油混合时,两种液体是彼此分开的,醋滴会浮在油面上,在物理学中,这就构成了液体的两相,而分子间的相分离也会发生在细胞内部。

BMC Cell Biol:英科学家找到神奇分子,衰老细胞重获新生,人类寿命可被延长

【衰老新突破:新分子可以使衰老的细胞重获新生】埃克塞特大学分子遗传学小组发现了一种恢复不活跃衰老细胞的新方法。可以在几个小时之内,使衰老的细胞重新正常分裂。此次研究重点在于研究小分子调制剪接因子表达,从而救援细胞衰老问题,研究结果发表在《BMC细胞生物学》杂志中。

香港大学揭细胞分裂新机制 或有助研究癌症成因

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整个生命过程中,人类的细胞不停分裂,产生新的细胞。在这个过程中,细胞通过调节DNA复制的速度对代谢波动作出反应,以此作为基因组稳定性的保证。11月10日发表在Science上的一篇文章阐明了如何让复制叉动力学响应代谢途径的细胞学机制。研究人员还展示了他们可以操纵这个节律,并建议用来杀死癌细胞。

BMC Cell Biol:英科学家找到神奇分子,衰老细胞重获新生,人类寿命可被延长!

【衰老新突破:新分子可以使衰老的细胞重获新生】埃克塞特大学分子遗传学小组发现了一种恢复不活跃衰老细胞的新方法。可以在几个小时之内,使衰老的细胞重新正常分裂。此次研究重点在于研究小分子调制剪接因子表达,从而救援细胞衰老问题,研究结果发表在《BMC细胞生物学》杂志中。

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