PNAS:新冠病毒在气溶胶中,20分钟会失去90%传染性

2022-07-14 MedSci原创 MedSci原创

根据布里斯托大学的新发现,SARS-CoV-2 病毒在气溶胶颗粒中 20 分钟内会失去 90% 的传染性。 该研究发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(PNAS) 杂志上,首次调查了气溶胶颗粒中 SARS-C

根据布里斯托大学的新发现,SARS-CoV-2 病毒在气溶胶颗粒中 20 分钟内会失去 90% 的传染性。 该研究发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(PNAS) 杂志上,首次调查了气溶胶颗粒中 SARS-CoV-2 的传染性在几秒到几分钟内的下降情况。 该研究的目的是探索可以在呼气后短时间内改变病毒传染性的过程。

Bristol化学学院、兽医学院和细胞与分子医学学院的科学家试图详细了解调节空气传播的 SARS-CoV-2 可吸入颗粒存活的因素,以及传染性如何受到环境条件(如相对湿度)的影响(RH) 和温度。相对湿度测量空气中的水蒸气(水分)与在该温度下可能存在的水蒸气量的比较。理想情况下,健康的室内相对湿度水平在 40% 到 60% 之间。

使用一种名为 CELEBS(受控电动悬浮和将生物气溶胶提取到基质上)的新型仪器,该团队能够探测 SARS-CoV-2 在实验室产生的空气传播颗粒中的存活率,并检查温度和湿度如何驱动传染性的变化,从时间跨度从 5 秒到 20 分钟。进行了相同的实验,比较了四种不同的 SARS-CoV-2 变体,包括 Alpha 和 Beta。

该团队的实验结果发现,在气溶胶颗粒产生的前十分钟内,传染性显着下降,这在很大程度上取决于环境相对湿度,而不是温度。这种效应在不同的 SARS-CoV-2 变体中没有改变。

研究小组观察到,在低相对湿度 (<50%) 下,空气传播的传染性几乎立即发生下降,在气溶胶产生后 10 秒内降至 50%。当空气中的颗粒干燥并迅速失去水分,形成固体颗粒时,就会发生这种损失。在高相对湿度下,雾化后传染性的丧失更为缓慢,在最初的 5 分钟内传染性稳定损失 50%,在 20 分钟内稳定损失 90%。这种损失是由于气溶胶颗粒 pH 值的显着增加。

该研究的主要作者、Bristol气溶胶研究中心主任、Bristol大学化学学院物理化学教授乔纳森·里德说:“我们知道,当感染者呼吸、说话或咳嗽时呼出的气溶胶颗粒可以传播病毒。了解在空气传播时影响病原体存活的机制是了解 COVID-19 等疾病传播的进一步情况。

pH 在 SARS-CoV-2 空气传播传染性丧失中的作用。 (A) 在 DMEM 2% FBS 中孵育 30 分钟后 SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) 的散装感染率百分比变为 pH 9(紫色数据点)或 11(绿色数据点),稀释回中性培养基和每 10 分钟铺在细胞上。数据点是 pH 11 的三个测量值和 pH 9 的五个测量值的平均值,误差条显示标准误差。 (B) 组织培养基 (在本例中为 DMEM) 在暴露于露天时所经历的 pH 值变化。将 DMEM 置于开放的培养皿或 50-mL 试管中,无论是否含有 HEPES,测量初始 pH(蓝色条)和 20 分钟后的 pH(橙色条)。使用 DMEM 薄层进行相同的测量,允许在 24 小时内蒸发至其原始体积的 10%(标记为完全蒸发)。 (C) SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) 在 90% RH 下进行 5 分钟的悬浮,不同的 CO2 浓度混合到气流中。条形图显示 0% CO2 的 15 次测量值、5% CO2 的 16 次测量值和 10% CO2 的 6 次测量值的平均值,误差条显示标准误差。 *P < 0.03 在 0% 和 5% CO2 之间。

“使用实验室中的模型系统,我们已经能够识别出这两个过程,这些过程会导致 SARS-CoV-2 病毒的传染性在早期迅速丧失。还应该记住,个体之间呼出的气溶胶质量可能有 1,000 倍的变化,而 SARS-CoV-2 呼出的病毒载量可能有 10,000 倍的变化。所有这些都让我们想起了我们还不了解的事情,以及流行病学研究,以及使用适当的缓解措施来减少气溶胶传播的重要性,包括口罩、身体距离和通风”。

另外,发现在碱性环境下,新冠病毒迅速失活。尤其是pH值为11时,失活十分迅速。

原始出处:

Henry P. Oswin,et al. The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity with changes in aerosol microenvironment. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2200109119

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    2022-08-25 drwjr
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    2023-04-16 xzw113
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    2022-07-16 huagfeg
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    2022-07-15 ms3000000847578065

    除湿机安排

    0

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    2022-07-15 yangchou

    好文章,谢谢分享。

    0

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随着新冠疫情的全球蔓延,不少国家建议民众外出时保持社交安全距离。美国疾病防控中心此前指出,最理想的社交距离是1.8米,其他各个国家规定的社交距离也都不尽相同。

BMJ:Covid-19:我们对SARS-CoV-2的空气传播了解多少?

covid-19如何传播是这场大流行最具争议的问题之一。Chris Baraniuk解释了该病毒通过空气传播的证据。