为何将干细胞送上太空?

2016-12-15 中国科学报 张章 中国科学报 张章

失重不仅破坏“飞人”的发型和方向感,还会对培养皿中的细胞产生不可思议的影响。那微重力环境会对干细胞产生哪些影响呢?


微生物学家、宇航员Kate Rubins在国际空间站测试干细胞。图片来源:NASA


失重不仅破坏“飞人”的发型和方向感,还会对培养皿中的细胞产生不可思议的影响。那微重力环境会对干细胞产生哪些影响呢?

近日,美国加利福尼亚州帕洛阿尔托市斯坦福大学细胞生物学家Arun Sharma在世界干细胞峰会(WSCS)上汇报了相关研究成果。他希望将干细胞送至外太空,放置于国际空间站(ISS),从而使其处于近乎失重的状态,以便进行相关研究。

宇航员的身体发生了什么?

离开地球存在许多风险,其中之一就是改变人体心血管系统。有证据表明,宇航员容易发生心律不齐和心脏萎缩(更不要说其他太空危害)。Sharma向WSCS的观众解释了他和同事想通过ISS详细了解微重力对心肌的影响。

因为来自真实人类心脏的细胞对于研究来说是短缺且难以维持的,所以研究团队需要从干细胞中制造出新的心肌细胞。他们将来自3个人的成人皮肤和血细胞重编程为诱导多能干细胞——能在体内发育成心脏细胞等许多不同类型的细胞。

之后,研究人员将这些细胞送上了太空。今年7月,SpaceX CRS-9任务带来了这些在ISS停留了1个月的心肌细胞。来自同一人的第二组心肌细胞则留在地球上作为对照。

现在研究团队开始分析在旅行期间和之后收集的数据,包括哪些基因被打开或关闭,以及细胞的结构和收缩能力等。Sharma表示,初步观察结果显示,细胞在飞行时呈现出略微不规则的节律,但返回地球后恢复了正常节律。

研究人员称,这表明微重力对宇航员的影响可能超越想象,因为他们身体的一些变化似乎模仿了加速的自然衰老过程。

使干细胞更“干涩”

长期空间任务可能会导致身体恶化,但似乎对某些类型的干细胞有不同的影响。加州洛马·林达大学移植免疫学家Mary Kearns-Jonker一直通过将心脏祖细胞——可以发展成为心肌的组织特异性干细胞——装入一个定位器装置进行微重力模拟实验。该装置通过不断旋转这些细胞以减少重力。

该研究小组已经发现,新生儿的心脏祖细胞似乎在这些微重力条件下能更好增殖且表现出分化迹象——回到更原始的非专门化状态,而成年人的心脏祖细胞并没有出现这些现象。

“它们回来了一点点,以更有效地前进。”Kearns-Jonker解释道。事实上,她发现微重力可以激活某些遗传途径,从而当受损组织再生时开始运作。

但Kearns-Jonker说,“人们普遍认为地球上没有完美的微重力系统。”所以,她计划在2017年3月将实验室细胞送入太空,并在ISS停留1个月,以探寻地球研究中发现的与年龄相关影响是否也发生在太空中。

能产生更好的疗法吗?

Kearns-Jonker团队已经测试了地球上普通老年人心脏祖细胞的潜在治疗效果。在尚未发表的研究中,她在成年羊身上诱导心脏病发作,然后为它们注射从新生绵羊心脏中分离的祖细胞。如果证明这些细胞能有效治疗心脏病,她希望可以在临床上测试微重力:即使只是1个星期的旋转,也可以进一步提高它们的力量。

佛罗里达州杰克逊维尔梅奥诊所干细胞研究员Abba Zubair,对未来治疗甚至有着更宏伟的愿景:在ISS上发展干细胞治疗。他的工作重点是出血性脑卒中——大脑中破裂的血管造成的出血。他正在准备临床试验测试另一种细胞类型:间充质干细胞,以挽救受损的神经元。

但Zubair估计,治疗一位患者将需要1亿到2亿个间充质干细胞,但这些细胞的增长非常困难和耗时。早期研究结果表明,干细胞在微重力中能快速增殖,Zubair计划测试太空旅行是否会使间充质干细胞群扩增。

如果是这样,该研究将解决一个更大的问题:无菌的临床级细胞可以在轨道实验室中生长吗?在太空旅行之后,它们仍然可以被安全地注入人体吗?

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    2016-12-27 李东泽

    很好,不错,以后会多学习

    0

  2. [GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=165993, encodeId=91ee16599363, content=很好,不错,以后会多学习, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=79, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=https://wx.qlogo.cn/mmopen/jW482SpianMayicTRbRZ5RzUn81b5CF5ibVPib8jWI92iciaxmqGHlwruOnK4SVZykd4iahqo1hicklIibyZoxm55X7EM8BW9eX1h1hQ2/0, createdBy=8aa81937526, createdName=李东泽, createdTime=Tue Dec 27 09:03:15 CST 2016, time=2016-12-27, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=165753, encodeId=ec5b165e53d4, content=文章好好, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=67, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=https://wx.qlogo.cn/mmopen/jW482SpianMayicTRbRZ5RzdAIB7UwTkHt6fQkBP8ictliaXtc5gCUmYdAW1sAETC2nhO3q6YjRHkUibyOCtP8ibmXNObTyd63A076/0, createdBy=d4111948983, createdName=1e10c84am36(暂无匿称), createdTime=Mon Dec 26 09:48:12 CST 2016, time=2016-12-26, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163675, encodeId=47bd1636e5fb, content=得下载下来看看, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=58, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cacheapi.medsci.cn/resource/upload/20151102/IMG563643881070C8786.jpg, createdBy=f4241660247, createdName=小树, createdTime=Sun Dec 18 07:08:13 CST 2016, time=2016-12-18, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163580, encodeId=c57516358096, content=希望有更多这方面的研究, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=58, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cacheapi.medsci.cn/resource/upload/20161224/IMG585DA5E26B9F44696.jpg, createdBy=565a98798, createdName=susice, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 18:08:31 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163574, encodeId=4d5e1635e439, content=学习 学习 学习, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=65, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cdnapi.center.medsci.cn/medsci/head/2019/11/19/9bc45f4ae162bd654210831f4e7ea3d0.jpg, createdBy=bbf11609910, createdName=杨帆7792, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 16:49:55 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163505, encodeId=982c16350591, content=NLRC3的作用不仅仅是阻止肿瘤的发生发展,在一些感染性及炎症性疾病中应该还存在很多我们尚不知晓的作用。, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=26, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=https://wx.qlogo.cn/mmopen/NUyjXTCJjo7s7ZCKOmmbBTD6nE7gcd5OZpvyGEzkxBP3S275k5ZJVrsPkotZhBglRHM9rKvcj1OgkssqhcnoPw8zIaMZTF8c/0, createdBy=4c441942088, createdName=ylzr123, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 11:52:37 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163408, encodeId=1a0e163408e3, content=真的与结肠癌相关,希望尽快出结论, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=20, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cacheapi.medsci.cn/resource/upload/20160916/IMG57DBEDBBA66BD2947.jpg, createdBy=3b181951777, createdName=ren1mw, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 07:12:03 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=)]
    2016-12-26 1e10c84am36(暂无匿称)

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    0

  3. [GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=165993, encodeId=91ee16599363, content=很好,不错,以后会多学习, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=79, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=https://wx.qlogo.cn/mmopen/jW482SpianMayicTRbRZ5RzUn81b5CF5ibVPib8jWI92iciaxmqGHlwruOnK4SVZykd4iahqo1hicklIibyZoxm55X7EM8BW9eX1h1hQ2/0, createdBy=8aa81937526, createdName=李东泽, createdTime=Tue Dec 27 09:03:15 CST 2016, time=2016-12-27, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=165753, encodeId=ec5b165e53d4, content=文章好好, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=67, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=https://wx.qlogo.cn/mmopen/jW482SpianMayicTRbRZ5RzdAIB7UwTkHt6fQkBP8ictliaXtc5gCUmYdAW1sAETC2nhO3q6YjRHkUibyOCtP8ibmXNObTyd63A076/0, createdBy=d4111948983, createdName=1e10c84am36(暂无匿称), createdTime=Mon Dec 26 09:48:12 CST 2016, time=2016-12-26, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163675, encodeId=47bd1636e5fb, content=得下载下来看看, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=58, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cacheapi.medsci.cn/resource/upload/20151102/IMG563643881070C8786.jpg, createdBy=f4241660247, createdName=小树, createdTime=Sun Dec 18 07:08:13 CST 2016, time=2016-12-18, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163580, encodeId=c57516358096, content=希望有更多这方面的研究, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=58, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cacheapi.medsci.cn/resource/upload/20161224/IMG585DA5E26B9F44696.jpg, createdBy=565a98798, createdName=susice, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 18:08:31 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163574, encodeId=4d5e1635e439, content=学习 学习 学习, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=65, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cdnapi.center.medsci.cn/medsci/head/2019/11/19/9bc45f4ae162bd654210831f4e7ea3d0.jpg, createdBy=bbf11609910, createdName=杨帆7792, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 16:49:55 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163505, encodeId=982c16350591, content=NLRC3的作用不仅仅是阻止肿瘤的发生发展,在一些感染性及炎症性疾病中应该还存在很多我们尚不知晓的作用。, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=26, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=https://wx.qlogo.cn/mmopen/NUyjXTCJjo7s7ZCKOmmbBTD6nE7gcd5OZpvyGEzkxBP3S275k5ZJVrsPkotZhBglRHM9rKvcj1OgkssqhcnoPw8zIaMZTF8c/0, createdBy=4c441942088, createdName=ylzr123, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 11:52:37 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=), GetPortalCommentsPageByObjectIdResponse(id=163408, encodeId=1a0e163408e3, content=真的与结肠癌相关,希望尽快出结论, beContent=null, objectType=article, channel=null, level=null, likeNumber=20, replyNumber=0, topicName=null, topicId=null, topicList=[], attachment=null, authenticateStatus=null, createdAvatar=http://cacheapi.medsci.cn/resource/upload/20160916/IMG57DBEDBBA66BD2947.jpg, createdBy=3b181951777, createdName=ren1mw, createdTime=Sat Dec 17 07:12:03 CST 2016, time=2016-12-17, status=1, ipAttribution=)]
    2016-12-18 小树

    得下载下来看看

    0

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    2016-12-17 susice

    希望有更多这方面的研究

    0

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    2016-12-17 杨帆7792

    学习 学习 学习

    0

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    2016-12-17 ylzr123

    NLRC3的作用不仅仅是阻止肿瘤的发生发展,在一些感染性及炎症性疾病中应该还存在很多我们尚不知晓的作用。

    0

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    2016-12-17 ren1mw

    真的与结肠癌相关,希望尽快出结论

    0

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