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Single Amino Acid Substitutions Surrounding the Icosahedral Fivefold Symmetry Axis Are Critical for Alternative Receptor Usage of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (10)

The integrins function as the primary receptor molecules for the pathogenic infection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vivo, while the acquisition of a high affinity for heparan sulfate (HS) of some FMDV variants could be privileged to facilitate viral infection and expanded cell tropism in vitro. Here, we noted that a BHK-adapted Cathay topotype derivative (O/HN/CHA/93tc) but not its genetically engineered virus (rHN), was able to infect HS-positive CHO-K1 cells and mutant pgsD-677 cells. There were one or three residue changes in the capsid proteins of O/HN/CHA/93tc and rHN, as compared with that of their tissue-originated isolate (O/HN/CHA/93wt). The phenotypic properties of a set of site-directed mutants of rHN revealed that E83K of VP1 surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis was necessary for the integrin-independent infection of O/HN/CHA/93tc. L80 in VP2 was essential for the occurrence of E83K in VP1 during the adaptation of O/HN/CHA/93wt to BHK-21 cells. L80M in VP2 and D138G in VP1 of rHN was deleterious, which could be compensated by K83R of VP1 for restoring an efficient infection of integrin-negative CHO cell lines. These might have important implications for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of the recognition and binding of FMDV with alternative cellular receptors.

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Coxsackievirus A8 Circulating in China and Worldwide Reveals a Highly Divergent Genotype

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (10)

Coxsackievirus A8 (CV-A8) is one of the pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA), occasionally leading to severe neurological disorders such as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Only one study aimed at CV-A8 has been published to date, and only 12 whole-genome sequences are publicly available. In this study, complete genome sequences from 11 CV-A8 strains isolated from HFMD patients in extensive regions from China between 2013 and 2018 were determined, and all sequences from GenBank were retrieved. A phylogenetic analysis based on a total of 34 complete VP1 sequences of CV-A8 revealed five genotypes: A, B, C, D and E. The newly emerging genotype E presented a highly phylogenetic divergence compared with the other genotypes and was composed of the majority of the strains sequenced in this study. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis revealed that genotype E has been evolving for nearly a century and somehow arose in approximately 2010. The Bayesian skyline plot showed that the population size of CV-A8 has experienced three dynamic fluctuations since 2001. Amino acid residues of VP1(100N), (103Y), (240T) and (241V), which were embedded in the potential capsid loops of genotype E, might enhance genotype E adaption to the human hosts. The CV-A8 whole genomes displayed significant intra-genotypic genetic diversity in the non-capsid region, and a total of six recombinant lineages were detected. The Chinese viruses from genotype E might have emerged recently from recombining with European CV-A6 strains. CV-A8 is a less important HFMD pathogen, and the capsid gene diversity and non-capsid recombination variety observed in CV-A8 strains indicated that the constant generation of deleterious genomes and a constant selection pressure against these deleterious mutations is still ongoing within CV-A8 quasispecies. It is possible that CV-A8 could become an important pathogen in the HFMD spectrum in the future. Further surveillance of CV-A8 is greatly needed.

p24(G1) Encoded by Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus 1 Suppresses RNA Silencing and Elicits Hypersensitive Response-Like Necrosis in Nicotiana Species

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (10)

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) is a major pathogen associated with grapevine leafroll disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GLRaV-1 interactions with plant cells are unclear. Using Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated RNA-silencing assays, we demonstrated that GLRaV-1 p24 protein (p24(G1)) acts as an RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS), inhibiting local and systemic RNA silencing. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that p24(G1) binds double-stranded 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA (siRNA), and that siRNA binding is required but not sufficient for its RSS activity. p24(G1) localizes in the nucleus and can self-interact through its amino acid 10 to 210 region. Dimerization is needed for p24(G1) interaction with importin alpha 1 before moving to the nucleus, but is not required for its siRNA binding and RSS activity. Expression of p24(G1) from a binary pGD vector or potato virus X-based vector elicited a strong hypersensitive response in Nicotiana species, indicating that p24(G1) may be a factor in pathogenesis. Furthermore, p24(G1) function in pathogenesis required its RSS activity, dimerization and nuclear localization. In addition, the region of amino acids 122-139 played a crucial role in the nuclear import, siRNA binding, silencing suppression and pathogenic activity of p24(G1). These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying GLRaV-1 infection.

Spike Glycoprotein-Mediated Entry of SARS Coronaviruses

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses and causes of epidemic diseases that have resulted in public health emergencies worldwide. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor that allows the entry of these two viruses into host cells, a key step in the life cycle of the pathogens. The characterization of the interactions of ACE2 with the viral spike glycoproteins and structural studies of the ACE2-binding-induced conformational changes in the viral spike glycoproteins have furthered our understanding of the entry processes of these two viruses, and these studies provide useful information that will facilitate the development of antiviral agents and vaccines to control the diseases.

Meta-Transcriptomic Identification of Divergent Amnoonviridae in Fish

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has caused mass mortalities in farmed and wild tilapia with serious economic and ecological consequences. Until recently, this virus was the sole member of the Amnoonviridae, a family within the order Articulavirales comprising segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. We sought to identify additional viruses within the Amnoonviridae through total RNA sequencing (meta-transcriptomics) and data mining of published transcriptomes. Accordingly, we sampled marine fish species from both Australia and China and discovered several segments of two new viruses within the Amnoonviridae, tentatively called Flavolineata virus and Piscibus virus, respectively. In addition, by mining vertebrate transcriptome data, we identified nine additional virus transcripts matching to multiple genomic segments of TiLV in both marine and freshwater fish. These new viruses retained sequence conservation with the distantly related Orthomyxoviridae in the RdRp subunit PB1, but formed a distinct and diverse phylogenetic group. These data suggest that the Amnoonviridae have a broad host range within fish and that greater animal sampling will identify additional divergent members of the Articulavirales.

Plant Virology Delivers Diverse Toolsets for Biotechnology

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Over a hundred years of research on plant viruses has led to a detailed understanding of viral replication, movement, and host-virus interactions. The functions of vast viral genes have also been annotated. With an increased understanding of plant viruses and plant-virus interactions, various viruses have been developed as vectors to modulate gene expressions for functional studies as well as for fulfilling the needs in biotechnology. These approaches are invaluable not only for molecular breeding and functional genomics studies related to pivotal agronomic traits, but also for the production of vaccines and health-promoting carotenoids. This review summarizes the latest progress in these forefronts as well as the available viral vectors for economically important crops and beyond.

Identification of Novel Astroviruses in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Domestic Cats

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Astroviruses, isolated from numerous avian and mammalian species including humans, are commonly associated with enteritis and encephalitis. Two astroviruses have previously been identified in cats, and while definitive evidence is lacking, an association with enteritis is suggested. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing of viral nucleic acids from faecal samples, we identified two novel feline astroviruses termed Feline astrovirus 3 and 4. These viruses were isolated from healthy shelter-housed kittens (Feline astrovirus 3; 6448 bp) and from a kitten with diarrhoea that was co-infected with Feline parvovirus (Feline astrovirus 4, 6549 bp). Both novel astroviruses shared a genome arrangement of three open reading frames (ORFs) comparable to that of other astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated ORFs, ORF1a, ORF1b and capsid protein revealed that both viruses were phylogenetically distinct from other feline astroviruses, although their precise evolutionary history could not be accurately determined due to a lack of resolution at key nodes. Large-scale molecular surveillance studies of healthy and diseased cats are needed to determine the pathogenicity of feline astroviruses as single virus infections or in co-infections with other enteric viruses.

The Cell Tropism of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus for Airway Epithelial Cells Is Determined by the Expression of Porcine Aminopeptidase N

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) infects the epithelial cells in the respiratory tract of pigs, causing a mild respiratory disease. We applied air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated porcine airway cells to mimic the respiratory tract epithelium in vitro and use it for analyzing the infection by PRCoV. As reported for most coronaviruses, virus entry and virus release occurred mainly via the apical membrane domain. A novel finding was that PRCoV preferentially targets non-ciliated and among them the non-mucus-producing cells. Aminopeptidase N (APN), the cellular receptor for PRCoV was also more abundantly expressed on this type of cell suggesting that APN is a determinant of the cell tropism. Interestingly, differentiation-dependent differences were found both in the expression of pAPN and the susceptibility to PRCoV infection. Cells in an early differentiation stage express higher levels of pAPN and are more susceptible to infection by PRCoV than are well-differentiated cells. A difference in the susceptibility to infection was also detected when tracheal and bronchial cells were compared. The increased susceptibility to infection of bronchial epithelial cells was, however, not due to an increased abundance of APN on the cell surface. Our data reveal a complex pattern of infection in porcine differentiated airway epithelial cells that could not be elucidated with immortalized cell lines. The results are expected to have relevance also for the analysis of other respiratory viruses.

Selection of DNA Aptamers for Subcellular Localization of RBSDV P10 Protein in the Midgut of Small Brown Planthoppers by Emulsion PCR-Based SELEX

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), classified under the Reoviridae, Fijivirus genus, caused an epidemic in the eastern provinces of China and other East Asian countries and resulted in severe yield loss in rice and wheat production. RBSDV is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen) in a persistent manner. In order to provide a stable and cost-effective detection probe, in this study we selected three DNA aptamers (R3, R5 and R11) by an optimized, standardized and time saving emulsion PCR-based SELEX, for the detection of RBSDV outer-shell P10 protein for in situ localization studies in the midgut of SBPH. The specificity of these three DNA aptamers was tested through detection of the P10 protein using an enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA) and aptamer-based dot-blot ELISA. All three DNA aptamers can be used to detect RBSDV P10 protein by immunofluorescent labeling in the midgut of RBSDV-infected SBPH. These data show that the selected aptamers can be used for the detection of RBSDV P10 protein in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report of aptamers being selected for detection of a rice virus capsid protein.

Marek's Disease Virus Cluster 3 miRNAs Restrict Virus' Early Cytolytic Replication and Pathogenesis

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Herpesvirus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in infected cells; however, lack of a suitable animal model has hampered functional analyses of viral miRNAs in vivo. Marek's disease virus (MDV) (Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2, GaHV-2) genome contains 14 miRNA precursors, which encode 26 mature miRNAs, grouped into three clusters. In this study, the role of MDV-encoded cluster 3 miRNAs, also known as mdv1-miR-M8-M10, in pathogenesis was evaluated in chickens, the natural host of MDV. Our results show that deletion of cluster 3 miRNAs did not affect virus replication and plaque size in cell culture, but increased early cytolytic replication of MDV in chickens. We also observed that deletion of cluster 3 miRNAs resulted in significantly higher virus reactivation from peripheral blood lymphocytes. In addition, pathogenesis studies showed that deletion of cluster 3 miRNAs resulted in more severe atrophy of lymphoid organs and reduced mean death time, but did not affect the incidence of MDV-associated visceral tumors. We confirmed these results by generating a cluster 3 miRNA revertant virus in which the parental MDV phenotype was restored. To the best of our knowledge, our study provides the first evidence that MDV cluster 3 miRNAs play an important role in modulating MDV pathogenesis.

Genomic Diversity and Evolution of Quasispecies in Newcastle Disease Virus Infections

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infections are well known to harbour quasispecies, due to the error-prone nature of the RNA polymerase. Quasispecies variants in the fusion cleavage site of the virus are known to significantly change its virulence. However, little is known about the genomic patterns of diversity and selection in NDV viral swarms. We analyse deep sequencing data from in vitro and in vivo NDV infections to uncover the genomic patterns of diversity and the signatures of selection within NDV swarms. Variants in viruses from in vitro samples are mostly localised in non-coding regions and 3 ' and 5 ' untranslated regions (3 ' UTRs or 5 ' UTRs), while in vivo samples contain an order of magnitude more variants. We find different patterns of genomic divergence and diversity among NDV genotypes, as well as differences in the genomic distribution of intra-host variants among in vitro and in vivo infections of the same strain. The frequency spectrum shows clear signatures of intra-host purifying selection in vivo on the matrix protein (M) coding gene and positive or diversifying selection on nucleocapsid (NP) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). The comparison between within-host polymorphisms and phylogenetic divergence reveals complex patterns of selective pressure on the NDV genome at between- and within-host level. The M sequence is strongly constrained both between and within hosts, fusion protein (F) coding gene is under intra-host positive selection, and NP and HN show contrasting patterns: HN RNA sequence is positively selected between hosts while its protein sequence is positively selected within hosts, and NP is under intra-host positive selection at the RNA level and negative selection at the protein level.

Patterns of RNA Editing in Newcastle Disease Virus Infections

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

The expression of accessory non-structural proteins V and W in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infections depends on RNA editing. These proteins are derived from frameshifts of the sequence coding for the P protein via co-transcriptional insertion of one or two guanines in the mRNA. However, a larger number of guanines can be inserted with lower frequencies. We analysed data from deep RNA sequencing of samples from in vitro and in vivo NDV infections to uncover the patterns of mRNA editing in NDV. The distribution of insertions is well described by a simple Markov model of polymerase stuttering, providing strong quantitative confirmation of the molecular process hypothesised by Kolakofsky and collaborators three decades ago. Our results suggest that the probability that the NDV polymerase would stutter is about 0.45 initially, and 0.3 for further subsequent insertions. The latter probability is approximately independent of the number of previous insertions, the host cell, and viral strain. However, in LaSota infections, we also observe deviations from the predicted V/W ratio of about 3:1 according to this model, which could be attributed to deviations from this stuttering model or to further mechanisms downregulating the abundance of W protein.

Bovine Coronavirus: Variability, Evolution, and Dispersal Patterns of a No Longer Neglected Betacoronavirus

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (11)

Bovine coronavirus (BoCV) is an important pathogen of cattle, causing severe enteric disease and playing a role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Similar to other coronaviruses, a remarkable variability characterizes both its genome and biology. Despite their potential relevance, different aspects of the evolution of BoCV remain elusive. The present study reconstructs the history and evolution of BoCV using a phylodynamic approach based on complete genome and spike protein sequences. The results demonstrate high mutation and recombination rates affecting different parts of the viral genome. In the spike gene, this variability undergoes significant selective pressures-particularly episodic pressure-located mainly on the protein surface, suggesting an immune-induced selective pressure. The occurrence of compensatory mutations was also identified. On the contrary, no strong evidence in favor of host and/or tissue tropism affecting viral evolution has been proven. The well-known plasticity is thus ascribable to the innate broad viral tropism rather than mid- or long-term adaptation. The evaluation of the geographic spreading pattern clearly evidenced two clusters: a European cluster and an American-Asian cluster. While a relatively dense and quick migration network was identified in the former, the latter was dominated by the primary role of the United States (US) as a viral exportation source. Since the viral spreading pattern strongly mirrored the cattle trade, the need for more intense monitoring and preventive measures cannot be underestimated as well as the need to enforce the vaccination of young animals before international trade, to reduce not only the clinical impact but also the transferal and mixing of BoCV strains.

Isolation and Identification of Porcine Deltacoronavirus and Alteration of Immunoglobulin Transport Receptors in the Intestinal Mucosa of PDCoV-Infected Piglets

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (1)

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and frequently death in piglets, causing serious economic losses to the pig industry. The strain CHN-JS-2017 was isolated and identified by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. A nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the whole genome of CHN-JS-2017 is 97.4%-99.6% identical to other PDCoV strains. The pathogenicity of the CHN-JS-2017 strain was investigated in orally inoculated five-day-old piglets; the piglets developed acute, watery diarrhea, but all recovered and survived. CHN-JS-2017 infection-induced microscopic lesions were observed, and viral antigens were detected mainly by immunohistochemical staining in the small intestine. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) are crucial immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors for the transcytosis ofimmunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, or IgM. Importantly, CHN-JS-2017 infected five-day-old piglets could significantly down-regulate the expression of FcRn, pIgR, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B)in the intestinal mucosa. Note that the level of FcRn mRNA in the intestinal mucosa of normal piglets is positively correlated with pIgR and NF-kappa B. At the same time, the expressions of FcRn, pIgR, and NF-kappa B mRNA are also positively correlated in infected piglets. These results may help explain the immunological and pathological changes associated with porcine deltacorononirus infection.

Autophagy Promotes Porcine Parvovirus Replication and Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death in Porcine Placental Trophoblasts

期刊: VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (1)

Autophagy plays important roles in the infection and pathogenesis of many viruses, yet the regulatory roles of autophagy in the process of porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection remain unclear. Herein, we show that PPV infection induces autophagy in porcine placental trophoblasts (PTCs). Induction of autophagy by rapamycin (RAPA) inhibited the occurrence of apoptotic cell death, yet promoted viral replication in PPV-infected cells; inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA or ATG5 knockdown increased cellular apoptosis and reduced PPV replication. Interestingly, we found that in the presence of caspase-inhibitor zVAD-fmk, PPV induces non-apoptotic cell death that was characterized by lysosomal damage and associated with autophagy. Induction of complete autophagy flux by RAPA markedly promoted PPV replication compared with incomplete autophagy induced by RAPA plus bafilomycin (RAPA/BAF) in the early phase of PPV infection (24 h.p.i.). Meanwhile, induction of complete autophagy with RAPA increased lysosomal damage and non-apoptotic cell death in the later phase of PPV infection. Therefore, our data suggest that autophagy can enhance PPV replication and promote the occurrence of lysosomal-damage-associated non-apoptotic cell death in PPV-infected porcine placental trophoblasts.

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