Background Treatment with combined sofosbuvir and velpatasvir has resulted in high sustained virological response rates in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with genotypes 1-6 in clinical trials and real-world settings, but its efficacy and safety has not been assessed in Asia, a region with diverse HCV genotypes. Methods In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 38 sites across China, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Malaysia, who were chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1-6, and were HCV treatmentnaive or treatment-experienced, either without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Patients self-administered a combined sofosbuvir (400 mg) and velpatasvir (100 mg) tablet once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response, defined as HCV RNA less than 15 IU/mL at 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12), assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of adverse events leading to premature discontinuation of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02671500, and is completed. Findings Between April 14, 2016, and June 30, 2017, 375 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 374 completed the full treatment course and one discontinued treatment. Overall, 362 (97% [95% CI 94-98]) of 375 patients achieved SVR12. Among 42 patients with HCV genotype 3b, all of whom had baseline resistance-associated substitutions in NSSA, 25 (89% [95% CI 72-98]) of 28 patients without cirrhosis and seven (50% [23-77]) of 14 patients with cirrhosis achieved SVR12. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (36 [10%] patients) and headache (18 [5%] patients). There were no discontinuations due to adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in three (1%) patients, none of which was judged to be related to sofosbuvir-velpatasvir treatment. Interpretation Consistent with data from other phase 3 studies, single-tablet sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks is an efficacious and safe treatment for Asian patients with chronic HCV infection, but might have lower efficacy in those infected with HCV genotype 3b and with cirrhosis. Copyright (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the established treatment for common bile duct stones. Balloon dilation offers an alternative. Prolonged dilation (300 s) with a 10 mm diameter balloon decreases the occurrence of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We aimed to determine the optimal duration of dilation for combined endoscopic sphincterotomy and balloon dilation for the removal of common bile duct stones. Methods We did a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial at 15 tertiary surgical centres in China. Eligible patients (>= 18 years) with native papilla and common bile duct stones (<= 1.5 cm in size and <2 cm in diameter) undergoing ERCP were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to receive balloon dilation for 0, 30, 60, 180, or 300 s after deep bile duct cannulation. Randomisation was done by an independent statistician using a computer-generated randomisation list with a block size of ten, stratified by centre. Patients and outcome assessors, but not endoscopists and investigators, were masked to treatment allocation. Balloon dilation was done with controlled radial expansion balloons according to common bile duct stone size. Stones were removed using stone retrieval balloons or baskets. The primary endpoint was overall frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis. The primary efficacy analysis and safety analyses were done in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all randomly assigned patients with successful cannulation, but excluded those who withdrew consent after randomisation. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02510495, and is complete. Findings Between July 29, 2015, and Dec 1, 2017, 3721 consecutive patients with common bile duct stones were recruited, 1718 of whom were excluded. The remaining 2003 patients underwent a small (3-5 mm) endoscopic sphincterotomy. 83 patients withdrew consent after the ERCP procedure, thus 1920 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (0 s [n=371], 30 s [n=384], 60 s [n=388], 180 s [n=390], and 300 s [n=387]). Overall, post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred in 199 (10%) of 1920 patients (44 [12%] patients in the 0 s group, 28 [7%] in the 30 s group, 32 [8%] in the 60 s group, 36 [9%] in the 180 s group, and 59 [15%] in the 300 s group). Prolonged dilation (300 s) significantly increased the occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis compared with shorter balloon dilation (p=0.002). The frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis was significantly lower in the 30, 60, and 180 s groups than in the 300 s group (relative risk [RR] 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.73; p=0.0005 vs the 30 s group; 0.54, 0.36-0.81; p=0.003 vs the 60 s group; 0.61, 0.41-0.89; p=0.01 vs the 180 s group). The frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis was significantly higher in the 0 s group than the 30 s group (RR 1.62, 1.04-2.56; p=0.03). No difference in stone extraction (all >= 90%) was observed between groups. Following ERCP, 90 (5%) of 1920 patients had acute cholangitis, 14 (<1%) had acute cholecystitis, and five (<1%) had gastrointestinal bleeding, with no significant differences between groups. One (<1%) patient had Stapfer II perforation, which resolved spontaneously with conservative treatment. Interpretation A balloon dilation time of 30 s for combined endoscopic sphincterotomy and balloon dilation reduced the frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis and was determined to be the optimum dilation time for the removal of common bile duct stones. Copyright (C) 2019 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Ruling out the presence of cirrhosis is important for the management of chronic hepatitis B. We aimed to study and optimise the performance of two non-invasive indices for ruling out cirrhosis: the aspartate aminotransferase-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis score based on four factors (FIB-4). Methods We applied established cutoffs to rule in (APRI >2.00; FIB-4 >3.25) or rule out (APRI <1.00; FIB-4 <1.45) cirrhosis to data from eight global randomised trials that required baseline biopsy, and identified new cutoffs aiming for a sensitivity for detection of cirrhosis greater than 90% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of greater than 95% in the same dataset. We externally validated the new cutoffs using data from all consecutive biopsied patients from two tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands and Canada. Findings In the derivation dataset (n=2926; of whom 1750 were Asian); 340 (12%) individuals had cirrhosis. The validation cohort consisted of 1034 individuals (of whom 575 were Asian), with 155 (15%) individuals with cirrhosis. Application of conventional cutoffs for FIB-4 in the derivation dataset yielded unclassifiable results in 686 (23%) individuals, and 139 (41%) of the 340 patients with cirrhosis were misclassified as having no cirrhosis. Similarly, conventional cutoffs for APRI in the derivation dataset yielded unclassifiable results in 706 (24%) individuals, and 153 (45%) were misclassified as having no cirrhosis. An APRI of 0.45 or less had sensitivity of 91.5%, an NPV of 95.4%, and misclassified 29 (9%) of 340 individuals with cirrhosis in the derivation dataset, but performance was reduced in the validation set (22 [14%] of 155 individuals with cirrhosis misclassified). A FIB-4 score of 0.70 had a sensitivity of 90.9%, an NPV of 96.6%, and misclassified 31 (9%) of individuals with cirrhosis in the derivation dataset. In the validation cohort, the same score gave a sensitivity of 94.2%, an NPV of 97.3%, and misclassified nine (6%) of the individuals with cirrhosis. Subgroup analysis indicated that the new FIB-4 cutoff performed acceptably in all subgroups except for individuals aged 30 years or younger. Interpretation Conventional cutoffs for APRI and FIB-4 should not be used to guide management of patients with chronic hepatitis B due to high rates of misclassification. A newly identified and externally validated cutoff for FIB-4 (<= 0.70) can be used to exclude cirrhosis in patients over 30 years of age. Copyright (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Guidelines recommend the use of neuromodulators in patients with functional dyspepsia not responding to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and prokinetics; however, there is a lack of data from randomised controlled trials supporting their use. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), in treatment-refractory functional dyspepsia. Methods In this single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled consecutive patients with Rome II functional dyspepsia aged 18-80 years. Eligible patients were Helicobacter pylori-negative, had a normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and abdominal ultrasound, and remained symptomatic after open-label treatment with 8 weeks of esomeprazole and 4 weeks of domperidone. Patients completed questionnaires assessing dyspepsia symptoms, mood, and insomnia, and were then randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive imipramine (at a dose of 25 mg once nightly for the first 2 weeks, and then 50 mg thereafter) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall satisfactory relief of global dyspepsia symptoms at 12 weeks, via patient-reported assessment in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00164775, and is completed. Findings Between Sept 11, 2005, and Aug 20, 2010, 107 patients with treatment-refractory functional dyspepsia were randomly assigned to receive imipramine (n=55) or placebo (n=52). Relief of global dyspepsia symptoms at 12 weeks occurred in 35 (63.6%, 95% CI 50.-4-75.1) of 55 patients on imipramine compared with 19 (36.5%, 95% CI 24.8-50.1) of 52 on placebo (p=0.0051). Ten (18%) patients on imipramine discontinued the study due to adverse events (three dry mouth, two constipation, two drowsiness, and one each insomnia, palpitations, and blurred vision), compared with four (8%) on placebo (one dry mouth and constipation, and one each palpitations, worsening of gastro-oesophageal reflux, and limb paraesthesia). There were no serious adverse events. Interpretation Low-dose imipramine should be considered as a possible therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia refractory to both PPIs and prokinetics, although patients should be cautioned about the adverse event profile. Copyright (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clinically significant portal hypertension is associated with an increased risk of developing gastro-oesophageal varices and hepatic decompensation. Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy are the gold-standard methods for assessing clinically significant portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient >= 10 mm Hg) and gastro-oesophageal varices, respectively. However, invasiveness, cost, and feasibility limit their widespread use, especially if repeated and serial evaluations are required to assess the efficacy of pharmacotherapy. Although new techniques for non-invasive portal pressure measurement have been pursued for many decades, only recently have new tools been assessed and validated for larger clinical application. This Review focuses on the recent advances in non-invasive approaches for the diagnosis and serial monitoring of portal hypertension and varices for clinical practice.