Background. Myocardial reperfusion is an effective therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following myocardial reperfusion is a significant limitation for AMI treatment. Five prime to Xist (FTX) was recognized as a biomarker of multiple diseases, including heart disease. However, the molecular mechanism of FTX in I/R injury is unclear. Methods. Cell viability was evaluated by using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by using a caspase-3 activity detection kit and flow cytometry. The expression of FTX, microRNA (miR)-150, and Kruppel-like factor 13 (KLF13) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The interaction of miR-150 and FTX or KLF13 was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. Protein expression of KLF13 was examined by Western blot. The role of FTX was detected in I/R-injured heart tissues in vivo. Results. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cardiomyocyte injury by decreasing cell viability and expediting cell apoptosis. However, FTX alleviated cardiomyocyte injury by promoting cell proliferation and restricting cell apoptosis of H9C2 cells that were treated with H2O2. In addition, we discovered that FTX directly interacted with miR-150, while KLF13 was a target of miR-150. Rescue experiments showed that miR-150 neutralized the FTXmediated promotion of cell progression and restriction of cell apoptosis in H9C2 cells treated with H2O2. KLF13 knockdown restored the effect of miR-150 on increased proliferation and decrease in apoptosis in H2O2-treated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, FTX enhanced the expression of KLF13 protein through interaction with miR-150. Upregulation of FTX repressed apoptosis in I/R-injured heart tissues in vivo. Conclusion. FTX relieves H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte injury by increasing KLF13 expression via depletion of miR-150, thus providing a novel therapeutic target for the alleviation of I/R injury.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious long-term microvascular complication of diabetes, which mainly causes podocyte injury. Many studies have shown that microRNAs play a vital role in the development of DN. Studies have shown that miR-203-3p is involved in mesangial cell proliferation and apoptosis of DN mice. Therefore, we speculated that miR-203-3p might be related to the development of DN, but our study does not provide any evidence. In animal experiments, diabetic mice (db/db) were transfected with iR-203-3p overexpression lentiviral vectors (LV-miR-203-3p) and their control (LV-miR-con), with normal mice (db/m) being used as the control. High glucose (HG)-induced podocytes were used to construct a DN cell model in vitro. The expression levels of miR-203-3p, Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and inflammatory cytokines were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were used to evaluate the degree of renal injury in DN mice. Sema3A and apoptosis-related protein levels were assessed by the western blot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the different oxidative stress-related indicators and inflammatory cytokines. Flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity detection were used to analyze the degree of podocyte apoptosis. Our results suggested that the expression of miR-203-3p was lower in DN mice and in HG-induced podocytes. Overexpression of miR-203-3p reduced the body weight, blood glucose and renal injury of DN mice in vivo, as well as relieve the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis of HG-induced podocytes in vitro. Functionally, Sema3A was a target of miR-203-3p, and Sema3A overexpression reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-203-3p on HG-induced podocyte injury. Our findings revealed that miR-203-3p alleviated the podocyte injury induced by HG via regulating Sema3A expression, suggesting that miR-203-3p might be a new therapeutic target to improve the progression of DN.
Previous research has revealed the involvement of microRNA-212-5p (miR-212-5p) and cyclin T2 (CCNT2) in acutemyeloid leukemia (AML). However, whether the miR-212-5p/CCNT2 axis is required for the function of decitabine in AML has not been well elucidated. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine enrichment of miR-212-5p. The relationship between CCNT2 and miR-212-5p was verified by the luciferase reporter assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and western blot. CCK-8 assay was performed to determine cell viability. Decitabine significantly repressed cell viability, while promoted cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expression levels of cyclinD1, CDK4, and Bcl-2 were suppressed in cells with decitabine exposure, but Bax and caspase-3 expression levels were upregulated. Besides, miR-212-5p upregulation had the similar function with decitabine in AML cell proliferation and apoptosis. Subsequently, restoration of CCNT2 attenuated miR-212-5p overexpression-induced effects in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells. In addition, miR-212-5p depletion reversed decitabine-induced CCNT2 downregulation. The miR-212-5p/CCNT2 axis had an implication in the anti-leukemic effect of decitabine in AML.
Background. The mitogenomes of higher plants are conserved. This study was performed to complete the mitogenome of two China Lilium species (Lilium pumilum Redoute and Lilium davidii var. unicolor (Hoog) cotton). Methods. Genomic DNA was separately extracted from the leaves of L. pumilum and L. davidii in triplicate and used for sequencing. The mitogenome of Allium cepa was used as a reference. Genome assembly, annotation and phylogenetic tree were analyzed. Results. The mitogenome of L. pumilum and L. davidii was 988,986 bp and 924,401 bp in length, respectively. There were 22 core protein-coding genes (including atp1, atp4, atp6, atp9, ccmB, ccmC, ccmFc, ccmFN1, ccmFN2, cob, cox3, matR, mttB, nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad4L, nad5, nad6, nad7 and nad9), one open reading frame and one ribosomal protein-coding gene (rps12) in the mitogenomes. Compared with the A. cepa mitogenome, the coding sequence of the 24 genes and intergenic spacers in L. pumilum and L. davidii mitogenome contained 1,621 and 1,617 variable sites, respectively. In the phylogenetic tree, L. pumilum and L. davidii were distinct from A. cepa (NC_030100). Conclusions. L. pumilum and L. davidii mitogenomes have far distances from other plants. This study provided additional information on the species resources of China Lilium.
Testosterone is often used to improve the physiological function. But increased testosterone levels affect blood lipids and cause inflammation and oxidative stress, which are risk factors for vascular diseases. This study aimed at investigating the effects of testosterone on cerebral vascular injury using an established intracranial aneurysm (IA) model. Sixteen-week-old female C57Bl/6 mice were subcutaneously infused with testosterone propionate (TP; 5mg/kgday) or plain soybean oil (controls) for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, mice were given angiotensin II-elastase for another 4 weeks. The results showed that TP significantly increased cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in cerebral artery, together with increases in plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and in urinary 8-isoprostane levels. Plasma assays showed that 2 weeks after TP or soybean oil administration, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was higher in the TP group than in controls. In vitro studies showed that testosterone increased TNF-alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In summary, by reducing the HDL level, TP aggravates cerebral artery injury by increasing cell apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality. The regulation mechanism of miRNA is involved in the production and development of various diseases, but the regulation mechanism of miRNA in AP is still not fully elucidated. The expression of miR-339-3p was detected using quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 were detected using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Cell apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry. The protein expressions of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), Bcl-2, C-caspase 3, Bax, p-p38, and p38 were measured using western blot. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were applied to ensure that miR-399-3p targeted TRAF3. Caerulein promoted the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, enhanced the expression of C-caspase 3 and Bax while inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression. Meanwhile, caerulein also reduced the expression of miR-339-3p and induced the expression of TRAF3 in rat pancreatic acinar cells. miR-399-3p transfection inhibited the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 and C-caspase 3 and Bax protein expression as well as suppressed cell apoptosis, while increased Bcl-2 protein expression in caerulein-induced AP. TRAF3 has been verified as a target of miR-339-3p. Interestingly, the reduction of miR-399-3p inhibited the p38 pathway, which was impaired by the upregulation of TRAF3. In addition, the suppression effects of miR-339-3p on cell inflammation and apoptosis in caerulein-induced AP were reversed by enhancing TRAF3 expression. In this study, in vitro model of AP was characterized by strong inflammation and cell apoptosis. We have first demonstrated the regulatory network of miR-339-3p and TRAF3. Overexpression of miR-339-3p inhibited cell inflammation and cell apoptosis in caerulein-induced AP through modulating TRAF3 expression via the p38 pathway, providing a new therapeutic target in the treatment of AP.
Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in Northeast China. Focusing on soybeans cropped continuously for two consecutive years, this article fully explores the effects of the amount of water, fertilizing rate, and fertilizing method on the growth and yield of soybean. Specifically, an orthogonal experimental plan was designed involving these three factors. Each factor was divided into three levels: the amount of water was set as 52.62mm (W1), 73.41mm (W2), and 138.6mm (W3); the fertilizing rate was set as 6.75 kg/hm(2) (N1), 9.75 kg/hm(2) (N2), and 13.5 kg/hm(2) (N3); and the fertilizing method was set as center pivot sprinkler (CPS) fertigation (F1), microspray (MS) fertigation (F2), and MS fertilizing + CPS spraying and leaching (F3). During the experiments, the growth traits at each growth stage were monitored, and the soybean yield was measured. The following results were obtained through the analysis of the experimental data: the amount of water significantly affects the growth traits of soybean in the early stage of growth; the fertilizing rate greatly affects the stem diameter; and the fertilizing method is a major influencer of soybean yield. The highest yield (2811.88 kg/hm(2)) was observed in zone 4 (W2N1F2). This means irrigation and fertilization are very important to the normal growth of continuously cropped soybean; the yield loss induced by continuous cropping can be mitigated effectively through timely and adequate irrigation and topdressing, plus fertilization by the suitable method. To prevent yield loss, farmers in Northeast China are suggested to replace continuous cropping with crop rotation. If continuous cropping is unavoidable, foliage fertilizer should be sprayed timely for topdressing at the flowering and seed-filling stages.
Background - This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus megaterium on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, and immune function in suckling calves. Methods - In total, 20 1-day-old Holstein calves with similar body weight (BW) and good health condition were randomly assigned into two groups with ten replicates per group and one calf per replicate. The control group (CON group) was fed a basal diet, whereas the B. megaterium group (BM group) was fed the basal diet supplemented with 500mg/day/head of B. megaterium (10(10) CFU/g) for 28 days. Results - The results revealed that the BM group showed an increase in final BW, daily weight gain, and feed-to-gain ratio (p < 0.05) and a decrease in diarrhea rate. Moreover, the concentrations of serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased (p < 0.05) in the BM group compared with the CON group at 28 days. The level of serum glutathione was higher (p < 0.05) in the BM group than that of the CON group at 14 days, whereas the level of serum malondialdehyde decreased (p < 0.01) in the BM group compared with the CON group at 28 days. In addition, compared with the CON group (p < 0.05), the concentrations of serum IgA, IgM, IgG, and IL-4 were higher, whereas the concentration of serum TNF-alpha decreased in the BM group at 28 days. Conclusion - B. megaterium had beneficial effects on the improvement of growth performance, immune function, and intestinal oxidative status of suckling calves.
Viral myocarditis (VMC) caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection is a life-threatening disease. The cardiac damage during VMC is not mainly due to the direct cytotoxic effect of the virus on cardiomyocytes but mostly involves the induction of immune responses. Integrin CD11b plays an important role in immune response, for instance, in the induction of Th17 cells. However, the role of CD11b in the pathogenesis of VMC remains largely unknown. In the present study, a mouse model of VMC was established by CVB3 infection and CD11b was knocked down in the VMC mice by transfection with siRNA-CD11b. The expression of CD11b and IL-17 in heart tissues, frequency of Th17 cells in spleen tissues and serum IL-17 levels were measured using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and ELISA. Results showed that CVB3 infection caused the pathological changes in heart tissues with the increases in the following indexes: expression of CD11b and IL-17 in heart tissues, frequency of Th17 cells in spleen tissues and serum IL-17 levels. The expression of CD11b was positively correlated with IL-17 expression in heart tissues. Depletion of CD11b attenuated the damage caused by CVB3 and decreased the frequency of Th17 cells in spleen tissues as well as in IL17, IL-23 and STAT3 expression in heart tissues. In summary, our findings reveal that disruption of CD11b function reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis, suggesting that CD11b may be a novel therapeutic target for VMC.
Background - Regional anesthesia has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in various cancers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ropivacaine on the proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of glioma cells in vitro. Methods - Under ropivacaine stimulation conditions, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of glioma cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazol-3-ium bromide (MTT), flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. Western blot assay was employed to measure the protein expression levels in glioma cells. The expression levels of small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) and miR-424-5p were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The interaction relationship between SNHG16 and miR-424-5p was predicted and confirmed using a bioinformatics database and dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull-down assays. Results - After treatment with ropivacaine, proliferation, migration, and invasion were repressed while apoptosis was enhanced in glioma cells in a dose-depended manner. In addition, ropivacaine impeded SNHG16 expression in glioma cells. Importantly, overexpression of SNHG16 abolished the ropivacaine-induced effects on glioma cells. Analogously, knockdown of miR-424-5p counteracted the function of ropivacaine in glioma cells. We also found that SNHG16 bound to miR-424-5p and negatively regulated miR-424-5p expression in glioma cells. The rescue experiments indicated that ropivacaine might regulate glioma progression by targeting the SNHG16/miR-424-5p axis. Conclusion - Our findings revealed the anti-tumor effects of ropivacaine in glioma by targeting the SNHG16/miR-424-5p axis. These data might extend the understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which ropivacaine could suppress glioma development.
Cirrhosis caused by viral and alcoholic hepatitis is an essential cause of portal hypertension (PHT). The incidence of PHT complication is directly proportional to portal venous pressure (PVP), and the clinical research of PVP and its hemodynamic indexes is of great significance for deciding the treatment strategy of PHT. Various techniques are currently being developed to decrease portal pressure but hemodynamic side effects may occur. In this article, the hemodynamic indexes of cirrhotic PHT patients were studied to explore the correlation between the index and PVP and to evaluate the clinical value of Doppler ultrasound in measuring PVP in patients with PHT. This was achieved by selecting 90 cirrhotic PHT patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in our hospital from June 2015 to September 2019. Fifty healthy people who had a physical examination in the hospital in the same period were selected as the control group. The liver hemodynamic parameters of two groups were measured by Doppler ultrasound, and the cirrhotic PHT patients were graded by the Child-Pugh grading method to evaluate the liver function and measure the PVP value. The results showed that both the central portal vein velocity (PVV) and splenic vein velocity (SVV) of the PHT group were lower than those of the control group. Also, the portal vein diameter (PVD), portal venous flow and splenic vein diameter (SVD) were higher than those of the control group (all Ps < 0.05). Among liver function graded PHT patients, the PVD, PVV, SVD and SVV were significantly different (all Ps < 0.05). Furthermore, the PVP of patients with liver function grades A, B and C was 38.9 +/- 1.4, 40.6 +/- 5.1 and 42.5 +/- 4.8 cmH(2)O, respectively, with a significant difference. It can be concluded from this study that Doppler ultrasound can be used as a tool for clinical assessment of PHT in cirrhosis patients. Doppler ultrasound showed a good prospect in noninvasive detection of PHT in cirrhosis; however, this technique needs application on large sample population study to validate the results.
C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), the closest paralog of adiponectin, has been reported to protect against inflammation-related diseases. However, its role in regulating osteoarthritis (OA) has not been fully elucidated. First, a ratmodel of OA was generated. Furthermore, rats with OA were injected with different doses of recombinant CTRP9 protein (rCTRP9), and the knee cartilage damage was evaluated. Finally, the phosphorylation of p38 and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were detected by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results revealed that CTRP9 was highly expressed in adipose tissue, followed by skeletal muscle and cartilage tissue, and less expressed in liver, kidney and lung. Moreover, the expression of CTRP9 significantly decreased in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) group in the knee cartilage and knee synovial fluid, and the contents of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 significantly increased in knee synovial fluid. In addition, rCTRP9 alleviated MIA-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and knee cartilage damage in a dose-dependent way. In addition, rCTRP9 could attenuate the expression of p38MAPK and p-p38 and suppress the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), p65 and MMPs. Collectively, the results of the present study suggested that CTRP9 alleviates the inflammation of MIA-induced OA through deactivating p38MAPK and NF-kappa B signaling pathways in rats.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA-30c-5p (miR-30c-5p) participates in the pathogenesis of DN, but the mechanism has not been clearly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the biological role of miR-30c-5p in human DN progression in vitro. Compared with the controls, DN tissues and high glucose-induced HK-2 cells had significantly reduced miR-30c-5p levels, while ROCK2 expression was prominently elevated. Additionally, the miR-30c-5p mimic distinctly facilitated cell proliferation and blocked cell apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, ROCK2 was a target gene of miR-30c-5p, and the effects of miR-30c-5p mimic on cell proliferation, apoptosis and EMT were reversed by ROCK2 upregulation in vitro. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of DN was regulated by the miR-30c-5p/ROCK2 axis via the PI3K/AKT pathway. MiR-30c-5p regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and EMT through targeting ROCK2 via the PI3K/AKT pathway provides the novel potential target for clinical treatment of DN.
A lncRNA RP1-85F18.6 was reported to affect cell growth by regulating the cell cycle. Here we tested whether it affects the proliferation of osteoblast cells by regulating the cell cycle. We determined the expression of RP1-85F18.6 in two osteoblast cell lines hFOB and HOB by qPCR. Then we knocked down or overexpressed RP1-85F18.6 in hFOB and tested the alteration of viability, cell cycle, and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Results showed that both hFOB and HOB expressed RP1-85F18.6. The knockdown of RP1-85F18.6 decreased the viability of hFOB, while the overexpression of it increased the viability. Higher expression of RP1-85F18.6 results in higher cell viability. The knockdown of RP1-85F18.6 caused an increase in the S phase cells and a decrease in the G2/M phase cells. The overexpression of RP1-85F18.6 caused a decrease in the S phase cells and an increase in the G2/M phase cells. The knockdown of RP1-85F18.6 decreased cyclin A, cdk1, E2F, cyclin B, p53, and p21, whereas the overexpression of RP1-85F18.6 increased cyclin A, cdk1, E2F, cyclin B, p53, and p21. This study demonstrated that RP1-85F18.6 is expressed in osteoblast cell lines hFOB and HOB. RP1-85F18.6 affects the proliferation of osteoblasts by regulating the cell cycle.
Variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration can dictate plant growth and development and shape plant evolution. For paired populations of 31 Arabidopsis accessions, respectively, grown under 100 or 380 ppm CO2, we compared phenotypic traits related to vegetative growth and flowering time. Four accessions showed the least variation in measured growth traits between 100 ppm CO2 and 380 ppm CO2 conditions, though all accessions exhibited a dwarf stature with reduced biomass under low CO2. Our comparison of accessions also incorporated the altitude (indicated in meters) above sea level at which they were originally collected. Notably, An-1 (50m), Est (50m), Ws-0 (150m), and Ler-0 (600m) showed the least differences (lower decrease or increase) between treatments in flowering time, rosette leaf number, specific leaf weight, stomatal density, and less negative delta C-13 values. When variations for all traits and seedset were considered together, Ws-0 exhibited the least change between treatments. Our results showed that physiological and phenotypic responses to low CO2 varied among these accessions and did not correlate linearly with altitude, thus suggesting that slower growth or smaller stature under ambient CO2 may potentially belie a fitness advantage for sustainable growth under low CO2 availability.