Background. Our aim was to investigate the association between the genetics of the angiopoietin protein-like 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 (C/T) polymorphism with prediabetes (pre-DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a Han Chinese population in Hebei Province, China. Methods. We enrolled 1,460 participants into this case-control study: healthy controls, n = 524; pre-DM, n = 460; and T2DM: n = 460. Ligase assays on blood samples from all participants were used to identify polymorphisms. Differences in genotype and allele distributions were compared by the chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance, and a post hoc pairwise analysis was performed using the Bonferroni test. The logistic regression technique was adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Results. The frequency of the TT (10.9%) genotype was significantly higher in pre-DM patients than in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.026-2.802, P=0.039). In the T2DM group, the CT (48%) and TT (15%) genotypes were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (CT : OR = 1.384, 95% CI = 1.013-1.890, P=0.041; TT : OR = 2.530, 95% CI = 1.476-4.334, P=0.001). The frequency of the T allele was significantly higher in the pre-DM (32.8%) and T2DM (39%) groups compared with the control group (26.9%) and was significantly associated with an increased risk of pre-DM (OR = 1.253, 95% CI = 1.017-1.544, P=0.034) and T2DM (OR = 1.518, 95% CI = 1.214-1.897, P=0.001). Furthermore, insulin levels in the pre-DM and T2DM groups were significantly decreased in those with the TT genotype compared with the CC and CT genotypes. Conclusion. ANGPTL8 rs2278426 may be involved in the mechanism of insulin secretion and could lead to an increased risk of pre-DM and T2DM.
Purpose. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by digital clubbing, periostosis, and pachydermia. The underlying cause for the pathogenesis of this disease is a defect in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) degradation, caused by mutations in HPGD or SLCO2A1. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics, SLCO2A1 mutations, and bone metabolic markers of a PHO pedigree from a Chinese consanguineous twin family. Methods. Whole blood and urine samples were collected from all the family members. All the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HPGD and SLCO2A1 genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The biomarkers of mineral and bone metabolism, including calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), bone Gla-protein (BGP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (beta-CTX), and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (Uca/Ucr) were detected. Results. A homozygous (nonsense) mutation in the SLCO2A1 gene (c.1807C >T/p.R603*) was detected in the proband. Five heterozygous carriers were also identified among his relatives, including his twin brother. The serum BGP (225.5 ng/ml), beta-CTX (4112 pg/ml), and Uca/Ucr (0.63) levels were significantly elevated, while the 25(OH)D (37.1 nmol/L) level was reduced in the proband. The proband's twin brother displayed increased levels of beta-CTX (901 pg/ml) and insufficiency of 25(OH)D (67.29 nmol/L), while the other heterozygous carriers only displayed 25(OH)D insufficiency. Conclusion. The patients with PHO displayed an active state of bone reconstruction. There may be a lack of vitamin D, accompanied by an increase in BGP and beta-CTX levels. Heterozygous mutations of SLCO2A1 might lead to mild PHO.
Background. The twin epidemic of overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem globally, especially in China. Overweight/obese adults commonly coexist with T2DM, which is closely related to adverse health outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to develop risk nomogram of T2DM in Chinese adults with overweight/obesity. Methods. We used prospective cohort study data for 82938 individuals aged >= 20 years free of T2DM collected between 2010 and 2016 and divided them into a training (n = 58056) and a validation set (n = 24882). Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model in training set, we identified optimized risk factors of T2DM, followed by the establishment of T2DM prediction nomogram. The discriminative ability, calibration, and clinical usefulness of nomogram were assessed. The results were assessed by internal validation in validation set. Results. Six independent risk factors of T2DM were identified and entered into the nomogram including age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and family history. The nomogram incorporating these six risk factors showed good discrimination regarding the training set, with a Harrell's concordance index (C-index) of 0.859 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.850-0.868] and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.862 (95% CI: 0.853-0.871). The calibration curves indicated well agreement between the probability as predicted by the nomogram and the actual probability. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. The consistent of findings was confirmed using the validation set. Conclusions. The nomogram showed accurate prediction for T2DM among Chinese population with overweight and obese and might aid in assessment risk of T2DM.
Purpose. Several commercial tests have been used for the classification of indeterminate thyroid nodules in cytology. However, the geographic inconvenience and high cost confine their widespread use. This study aims to develop a classifier for conveniently clinical utility. Methods. Gene expression data of thyroid nodule tissues were collected from three public databases. Immune-related genes were used to construct the classifier with stacked denoising sparse autoencoder. Results. The classifier performed well in discriminating malignant and benign thyroid nodules, with an area under the curve of 0.785 [0.638-0.931], accuracy of 92.9% [92.7-93.0%], sensitivity of 98.6% [95.9-101.3%], specificity of 58.3% [30.4-86.2%], positive likelihood ratio of 2.367 [1.211-4.625], and negative likelihood ratio of 0.024 [0.003-0.177]. In the cancer prevalence range of 20-40% for indeterminate thyroid nodules in cytology, the range of negative predictive value of this classifier was 37-61%, and the range of positive predictive value was 98-99%. Conclusion. The classifier developed in this study has the superb discriminative ability for thyroid nodules. However, it needs validation in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules before clinical use.
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of liraglutide on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the promoting effects of liraglutide were investigated in MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that cell viability was affected following the treatment of the cells with different concentrations of liraglutide (0, 10, 100, and 1000 nM) at different time periods of culture (24, 48, and 72 h). Moreover, the activity levels of alkaline phosphatase and the number of mineralized nodules in MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly increased following treatment with 100 nM liraglutide. The mRNA and protein levels of Col-1, OPG, and OCN in MC3T3-E1 cells were also markedly increased following 100 nM liraglutide treatment compared with those of the control group. The expression levels of the ERK5 signaling pathway key proteins (MEK5, p-ERK5, ERK5, and NUR77) were increased following liraglutide treatment in MC3T3-E1 cells, and the gene expression levels of the ERK5 signaling pathway were also elevated. Moreover, the ERK5 inhibitor XMD8-92 significantly decreased the expression levels of p-ERK5 and NUR77 as well as the proliferation of osteoblasts. However, these changes could be rescued by liraglutide to some extent. Therefore, these results revealed that liraglutide may promote osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells via the activation of the ERK5 signaling pathway.
Tumor resection is the first-line therapy for acromegaly patients. In some cases, unsatisfactory intraoperative neuromuscular blockades (NMBs) lead to failed operations. The purpose of this study was to investigate and quantify the NMB status of acromegaly patients and explore the relationship between NMB status and hormone levels and body composition. Twenty patients with untreated acromegaly and seventeen patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas as controls were enrolled in this study. NMB was assessed using the train-of-four (TOF) technique with TOF-Watch (R) SX. The onset time of NMB, deep neuromuscular blockade duration (DNMBD), and clinical neuromuscular blockade duration (CNMBD) were monitored. We found a significantly longer onset time (110.25 +/- 54.90 vs. 75.00 +/- 27.56, s, p=0.017), shorter DNMBD (21.99 +/- 5.67 vs. 34.96 +/- 11.04, min, p<0.001), and shorter CNMBD (33.26 +/- 8.09 vs. 46.21 +/- 10.89, min, p<0.001) in acromegaly patients compared with the controls. DNMBD and CNMBD decreased in patients with decreasing body fat percentage and increasing growth hormone (GH) level, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level, and GH and IGF-1 burden. The onset time increased with increasing IGF-1 level and GH and IGF-1 burden. Taken together, a unique NMB status was identified in acromegaly patients with the following characteristics: prolonged onset time and shortened DNMBD and CNMBD. Changes in the levels and burdens of GH and IGF-1 and body composition were linearly correlated with intraoperative NMB in acromegaly patients.
Background. Asprosin is a novel identified adipokine secreted mainly by white adipose tissue, which is elevated in metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Acromegaly is a syndrome caused by pituitary growth hormone (GH) cell adenoma with excessive GH secretion. Serum adipocytokines levels may be involved in abnormal glycolipid metabolism in acromegaly patients. Objectives. To investigate serum asprosin levels in acromegaly patients and its correlation with high GH levels and glucolipid metabolic parameters. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted and 68 acromegaly patients and 121 controls were included in this study. Clinical information and laboratory examinations were collected and serum asprosin levels were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Results. Serum asprosin levels in acromegaly patients were significantly lower than controls (P<0.001). Serum asprosin levels in patients with the course of acromegaly >= 5 years (compared with <5 years), high area under curve of growth hormone (GH-AUC) after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (compared with low GH-AUC patients), and high IGF-1 SDS group (compared with low IGF-1 SDS group) were significantly reduced (all P<0.05). Serum asprosin levels in acromegaly patients were negatively correlated with the course of acromegaly, IGF-1 SDS, nadir growth hormone value (GH-Nadir), and GH-AUC after OGTT. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicated that acromegaly was an independent influencing factor of serum asprosin levels. According to serum asprosin levels tertiles, the risk of acromegaly in the lowest group was 2.67 times higher than the highest group (OR= 3.665, 95% CI 1.677 similar to 8.007, P=0.001), and the increased risk of the lowest group still existed after adjusting for gender, age, BMI, and TC (Model 2). Conclusions. Serum asprosin levels in acromegaly patients are lowered, which may be related to increased blood glucose and reduced body fat mass caused by long-term high GH levels exposure.
Objectives. The aim was to investigate neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in the serum and term placentas and its potential role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. A total of 49 GDM subjects and 39 age-matched women with normal pregnancies were recruited. We examined serum concentrations of NGAL and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in maternal blood and cord blood and their expression levels in the term placentas and umbilical cord. Results. Serum NGAL levels were significantly higher in GDM patients than in normal pregnant controls both in the maternal blood (4.80 +/- 1.99 vs. 3.66 +/- 1.13, P=0.001) and the cord blood (4.70 +/- 2.08 vs. 3.85 +/- 1.44, P=0.027). Moreover, serum NGAL levels exhibited a positive correlation with various parameters of insulin resistance. Maternal serum NGAL levels positively correlated with the NGAL levels found in the cord blood of the control (r = 0.399, P=0.012) and the GDM subjects (r = 0.349, P=0.014). Finally, the expression of NGAL protein levels in the placenta (1.22 +/- 0.39 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.23, P<0.001) and umbilical cord (0.65 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.10, P<0.001) were higher in GDM women than those noted in the control subjects. In the GDM group, maternal serum NGAL levels exhibited a positive correlation with placental NGAL mRNA and protein levels (r = 0.848, P=0.008; r = 0.636, P=0.011, respectively). Conclusions. NGAL may be an important adipokine involved in GDM and fetal development. The oversecretion of NGAL from the placenta may contribute to the elevated levels of serum NGAL in gestational diabetes mellitus.
Background. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the continuously stored data from the Abbott FreeStyle Libre flash glucose monitoring (FGM) system in Chinese diabetes patients during standard meal tests when glucose concentrations were rapidly changing. Subjects and Methods. Interstitial glucose levels were monitored for 14 days in 26 insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes using the FGM system. Standard meal tests were conducted to induce large glucose swings. Venous blood glucose (VBG) was tested at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after standard meal tests in one middle day of the first and second weeks, respectively. The corresponding sensor glucose values were obtained from interpolating continuously stored data points. Assessment of accuracy was according to recent consensus recommendations with median absolute relative difference (MARD) and Clarke and Parkes error grid analysis (CEG and PEG). Results. Among 208 paired sensor-reference values, 100% were falling within zones A and B of the Clarke and Parkes error grid analysis. The overall MARD was 10.7% (SD, 7.8%). Weighted least squares regression analysis resulted in high agreement between the FGM sensor glucose and VBG readings. The overall MTT results showed that FGM was lower than actual VBG, with MAD of 22.1 mg/dL (1.2 mmol/L). At VBG rates of change of -1 to 0, 0 to 1, 1 to 2, and 2 to 3 mg/dl/min, MARD results were 11.4% (SD, 8.7%), 9.4% (SD, 6.5%), 9.9% (SD, 7.5%), and 9.5% (SD, 7.7%). At rapidly changing VBG concentrations (>3 mg/dl/min), MARD increased to 19.0%, which was significantly higher than slow changing BG groups. Conclusions. Continuously stored interstitial glucose measurements with the FGM system were found to be acceptable to evaluate VBG in terms of clinical decision during standard meal tests. The continuously stored data from the FGM system appeared to underestimate venous glucose and performed less well during rapid glucose changes.
Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal growth restriction (FGR) leads to the development of diabetes mellitus in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protein malnutrition in utero on the pancreatic unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in FGR offspring. An FGR model was developed by feeding a low-protein diet to pregnant rats throughout gestation. Eighty-four UPR pathway components in the pancreas were investigated by quantitative PCR arrays and confirmed by qPCR and western blotting. Activating transcription factor (Atf4 and Atf6), herpud1, protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), and the phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha were upregulated, while cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein was markedly downregulated in FGR fetuses compared with controls. Investigation in adult offspring revealed temporal changes, for most UPR factors restored to normal, except that dysregulation of Atf6 and Creb3l3 maintained until adulthood. Moreover, autophagy was suppressed in FGR fetal pancreas and may be associated with decreased activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk). Apoptosis regulators Bax and cleaved-caspase 3 and 9 were upregulated in FGR fetal pancreas. Given that islet size and number were decreased in FGR fetus, we speculated that the aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired UPR signaling in fetal pancreas development. Whether these alterations early in life contribute to the predisposition of FGR fetuses to adult metabolic disorders invites further exploration.
There could be an overlap of monogenic diabetes and early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Precise diagnosis of early-onset diabetes has proven valuable for understanding the mechanism of diabetes and selecting optimal therapy. The majority of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) pathogenic genes in China is still unknown. In this study, a family with suspected MODY was enrolled. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was used to analyze the variants of the proband. Variants were filtered according to their frequency, location, functional consequences, and bioinformatics software. Candidate pathogenic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and tested for cosegregation in other members of the family and nonrelated healthy controls. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and PPI (protein-protein interaction) analysis were conducted using the DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) and the STRING online analysis tools for the candidate pathogenic gene. A total of 123291 variants including 105344 SNPs and 17947 InDels were found in WES. A likely pathogenic rare missense heterozygous mutation in diabetes genes (c.2137C > T, p.His713Tyr in IRS1) was identified, which was a cosegregate in this family and not in nonrelated healthy controls. The position of the mutation in the aminoacid sequence of the gene is highly conserved among the species. 2 significantly enriched KEGG pathways were identified including bta04930, type II diabetes mellitus (GCK, INS, PDX1, ABCC8, and IRS1), and bta04910, insulin signaling pathway (GCK, INS, and IRS1). PPI analysis displayed that IRS1 interacts with 3 known pathogenic proteins including INS, KCNJ11, and GCK. We conclude that WES could be an initial option for genetic testing in patients with early-onset diabetes. IRS1 p.His713Tyr is implicated as a possible pathogenic mutation in monogenic diabetes, which might require further validation, and the precise molecular mechanism underlying the influence of IRS1 p.His713Tyr on the development of diabetes remains to be determined in the further prospective studies.
Background. Functional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) are very rare disorders but have complex spectrum, including insulinoma, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, somatostatinoma, and VIPoma. Patients with PanNENs usually present with characteristic symptoms caused by corresponding hormone hypersecretion. It has always been challenging in dealing with such rare but complicated disorders. In this report, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of functional PanNENs in a large cohort of Chinese patients and summarized our clinical experience in diagnosis and treatment. Methods. The retrospective analysis was performed in patients with a definite diagnosis of functional PanNENs hospitalized in Chinese PLA General Hospital between 2000 and 2020. The clinical characteristics, surgical information, and pathological findings were extracted from their medical records and were analyzed. Results. Totally, 286 patients (gender: male 103 and female 183; age: 45.55 +/- 15.23 years old) were diagnosed with definite functional PanNENs. The most frequent functional PanNENs were insulinoma (266/286) followed by glucagonoma (10/286), somatostatinoma (3/286), adrenocorticotropic hormone- (ACTH-) producing tumor (3/286), gastrinoma (2/286), and VIPoma (2/286). Nine patients were diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) in which all the associated functional PanNENs were insulinomas. The duration from symptoms' onset to confirmed diagnosis was 3.67 +/- 4.28 years. Two hundred and eighty patients with tumor localized in pancreatic or with limited metastasis underwent surgery. The symptoms associated with hormonal oversecretion were improved significantly after surgery. Five patients with unresectable metastases or tumor recurrence after surgery were administrated with systemic chemotherapy or other targeted therapies. With these various therapies, the symptoms were also partially relieved. According to findings in pathological and immunochemical examination, all the functional PanNENs were categorized into NEN-G1 (41.95%), NEN-G2 (54.90%), NEN-G3 (3.15%), and NEC-G3 (0%). Conclusion. Patients with suspected functional PanNENs should have a systematic endocrine examination at diagnosis. Multidisciplinary collaborations are essential for precise diagnosis and tumor localization. A successful surgery or other targeted therapies can improve the prognosis of patients with such rare but complex disorders.
Background. Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, the presence of these complications in those with diabetes may lead to higher mortality. The aim of our study was to assess characteristics and mortality of osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, or rheumatoid arthritis in individuals with diabetes. Methods. We analyzed osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, and RA deaths associated with diabetes from 1999-2017 using the CDC WONDER system (CDC WONDER; ). We used ICD-10 codes to categorize the underlying and contributing causes of death. Crude mortality rates (CMR) and age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) per 1,000,000 person-years were calculated. Results. The AAMR for osteoporosis in the population with diabetes was significantly higher in females (AAMR: 4.17, 95% CI: 4.10-4.24) than in males (AAMR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.16). Deaths due to osteoporosis increased gradually from 1999, peaked in 2003 (AAMR: 3.78, 95% CI: 3.55-4.00), and reached a nadir in 2016 (AAMR: 2.32, 95% CI: 2.15-2.48). The AAMR for RA associated with diabetes was slightly higher in females (AAMR: 4.04, 95% CI: 3.98-4.11) than in males (AAMR: 2.45, 95% CI: 2.39-2.51). The mortality rate due to RA increased slightly from 1999 (AAMR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.97-3.39) to 2017 (AAMR: 3.20, 95% CI: 3.02-3.38). The AAMR for osteomyelitis associated with diabetes was higher in males (AAMR: 4.36, 95% CI: 4.28-4.44) than in females (AAMR: 2.31, 95% CI: 2.26-2.36). From 1999 to 2017, the AAMR from osteomyelitis in this population was 2.63 (95% CI: 2.44-2.82) per 1,000,000 person-years in 1999 and 4.25 (95% CI: 4.05-4.46) per 1,000,000 person-years in 2017. Conclusions. We found an increase in the age-adjusted mortality rates of RA and osteomyelitis and a decrease of osteoporosis associated with diabetes from 1999 to 2017. We suggest that increased attention should therefore be given to these diseases in the population with diabetes, especially in efforts to develop preventative and treatment strategies.
Objectives. Long-term exposure to excessive aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland may cause renal damage in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). The aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) may be significantly affected by renal function, especially in patients with renal damage related to long-term PA. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ARR as well as its effect on screening for PA. Methods. This study was performed in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, China. 803 patients with hypertension were consecutively recruited from 2012 to 2015. All participants underwent routine biochemical measurements, including plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC). In all patients with a PAC higher than 10 ng/dl, a saline perfusion test was conducted, and a CT scan or adrenal venous sampling was also performed if needed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted in all eGFR < 90 and eGFR >= 90 groups separately to determine the optimal cut-off values of ARR. Results. The optimal cut-off point for PA was an ARR of 40 ng/dl per ng/ml.h in the whole population, 52 ng/dl per ng/ml.h in subjects with an eGFR higher than 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 18 ng/dl per ng/ml.h in subjects with an eGFR lower than 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Patients with an eGFR higher than 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) had significantly lower PRA and higher ARR levels than patients with an eGFR lower than 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (P<0.05). Conclusions. Unsuppressed renin and lower ARR levels were associated with decreased eGFR in patients with primary aldosteronism. Diagnostic criteria of ARR by stratified eGFR may be an optimal strategy for the screening of primary aldosteronism.
Steroid hormones play essential roles in the reproductive biology of vertebrates. Estrogen exercises its effect through estrogen receptors and is not only a female reproductive hormone but acts virtually in all vertebrates, including fish, and is involved in the physiological and pathological states in all males and females. Estrogen has been implicated in mandible conservation and circulatory and central nervous systems as well as the reproductive system. This review intended to understand the structure, function, binding affinities, and activations of estrogens and estrogen receptors and to discuss the understanding of the role of sex steroid hormone estrogen receptors in mammals and fish.