Objective The incidence and survivorship of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are increasing. Presence of HPV DNA and epigenetic alterations in salivary rinses are independently associated with clinical prognosis. We evaluated the utility of a combined panel in detecting disease recurrence during surveillance. We also assessed the assay's applicability in screening for HPV+ OPSCC. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Two tertiary academic hospitals. Subjects and Methods Forty-nine patients with posttreatment OPSCC were enrolled. Separately, 21 treatment-naive patients and 40 controls were included in the screening analysis. Salivary rinses were obtained from these cohorts and biomarker levels were quantified. Receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate logistic models were used to assess performance of biomarker combinations. Results Eight patients (16.3%) in the posttreatment cohort developed locoregional recurrence. Recurrence was associated with alcohol use (odds ratio [OR], 6.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-3.79) and advanced nodal disease (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.52-3.01). A panel of HPV DNA and methylated EDNRB improved detection of recurrent disease (area under the curve [AUC], 0.88) compared to single markers (AUC, 0.69-0.78). Positive biomarkers preceded clinical detection by 2.4 +/- 1.6 months and was associated with nearly 40-fold risk of recurrence (OR, 36.4; 95% CI, 1.15-45.22). Within the screening analysis, single biomarkers demonstrated moderate sensitivity and specificity (AUC, 0.59-0.83) in the detection of primary disease. A panel combining HPV DNA markers with methylated EDNRB and methylated PAX5 improved AUC to 0.93. Conclusion Detection of high-risk HPV DNA or aberrant hypermethylation in oral rinses is associated with presence and recurrence of OPSCC. Targeting both markers in saliva may have utility in long-term surveillance.
We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients with esophageal stent who underwent cervical esophageal and/or hypopharyngeal stenosis after total laryngectomy (TL) from January 2014 to January 2018. The success rate of stent implantation was 100%. Dysphagia in 16 patients improved to class 0 or 1 (16/17, 94.12%) after stent implantation and in 1 patient was improved to class 2 (1/17, 5.88%). Two patients died of tumor progression at 7 months and 11 months after stent implantation, respectively, but both could eat semi-solid/solid food before death. Dysphagia was resolved in the remaining 15 patients, and there was no recurrence of dysphagia including feeding obstruction during follow-up. Therefore, this case series concludes that the esophageal stent position after TL can be much higher than that of patients with normal pharyngeal structures. Esophageal stent implantation is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with laryngopharyngeal/esophageal stenosis following TL.
Objective To describe our clinical experience with surgical treatments for sinonasal phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors diagnosed at our institution. Study Design Retrospective case series. Setting Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 10 patients diagnosed with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors associated with tumor-induced osteomalacia between December 2014 and October 2019. Results There were 4 men and 6 women with a disease course of 1 to 19 years. All patients exhibited hypophosphatemia and tumor-induced osteomalacia. The tumor was located in the sinonasal region, frontal bone, and temporal bone in 8 patients, 1 patient, and 1 patient, respectively. Technetium-99m octreotide scintigraphy was used for tumor localization in 4 cases. Six patients underwent endoscopic resection; the remaining 4 underwent unilateral transorbital anterior and posterior ethmoid artery ligation + endoscopic resection, endoscopic resection + skull base repair, internal carotid artery stenting + transcatheter arterial embolization + temporal bone tumor excision + adipose tissue plugging, and endoscopic resection + transfrontal craniotomy (n = 1 each). Two patients had a history of incomplete endoscopic resection. All patients achieved clinical remission and normalized biochemical indices after surgery. Only 1 patient developed recurrence and died of a brain hernia. Conclusions A diagnosis of sinonasal phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors should be based on a combination of clinical, imaging, and pathological findings. Technetium-99m octreotide scintigraphy helps in locating the tumor. Complete surgical excision guarantees clinical remission, and preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization or feeding artery ligation may reduce intraoperative bleeding in cases of highly vascularized tumors.
Objective To examine the influence of sevoflurane-based combined intravenous and inhaled anesthesia versus propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) on intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during thyroidectomy. Study Design A randomized controlled trial. Setting The present study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods Forty patients were randomly assigned to a sevoflurane-based combined intravenous and inhalation group (group S) or a propofol-based total intravenous group (group P). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam, sufentanil, propofol, and cisatracurium in both groups and was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil in group S and with TIVA with propofol and remifentanil in group P. IONM was performed intermittently according to the IONM formula standard. Results The time until detection of the first positive electromyographic (EMG) signal was significantly longer in group S (median, 41.0 minutes [interquartile range, 37.5-49.3]) than in group P (37.0 minutes [33.3-41.5], P = .028). All patients in group P had a positive EMG signal at initial monitoring, whereas 8 patients (40.0%) in group S did not. The rate of positive EMG signal at initial monitoring was significantly higher in group P than in group S (P = .006). The amplitude of the evoked potentials at V1, R1, R2, and V2 were similar between the groups. Conclusion Combined intravenous and inhaled anesthesia based on sevoflurane-remifentanil prolonged the time until detection of a positive EMG signal during IONM as compared with TIVA with propofol-remifentanil in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.
More than half of COVID-19 patients are afebrile early in the disease course, yet mildly ill or asymptomatic patients can still spread SARS-CoV-2 with high efficiency. Atypically presenting patients may be seen in noninfectious disease settings such as otolaryngology, which is a specialty prone to occupational exposure. Otolaryngologists have been infected with COVID-19 at higher rates than other specialties in China and other countries. Otolaryngology providers should maintain high clinical suspicion for mild and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Protective strategies should be implemented including preappointment screening, triaging, restriction of nonurgent visits and surgeries, telemedicine, and appropriate personal protective equipment use.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has unfolded with remarkable speed, posing unprecedented challenges for health care systems and society. Otolaryngologists have a special role in responding to this crisis by virtue of expertise in airway management. Against the backdrop of nations struggling to contain the virus's spread and to manage hospital strain, otolaryngologists must partner with anesthesiologists and front-line health care teams to provide expert services in high-risk situations while reducing transmission. Airway management and airway endoscopy, whether awake or sedated, expose operators to infectious aerosols, posing risks to staff. This commentary provides background on the outbreak, highlights critical considerations around mitigating infectious aerosol contact, and outlines best practices for airway-related clinical decision making during the COVID-19 pandemic. What otolaryngologists need to know and what actions are required are considered alongside the implications of increasing demand for tracheostomy. Approaches to managing the airway are presented, emphasizing safety of patients and the health care team.
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to unprecedented demands on the modern health care system, and the highly contagious nature of the virus has led to particular concerns of infection among health care workers and transmission within health care facilities. While strong data regarding the transmissibility of the infection are not yet widely available, preliminary information suggests risk of transmission among asymptomatic individuals, including those within health care facilities. We believe that the presence of a tracheostomy or laryngectomy stoma poses a unique risk of droplet and aerosol spread particularly among patients with unsuspected infection. At our institution, guidelines for the care of open airways were developed by a multidisciplinary open airway working group, and here we review those recommendations to provide practical guidance to other institutions.
Objective. To describe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient presentations requiring otolaryngology consultation and provide recommendations for protective measures based on the experience of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) departments in 4 Chinese hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design. Retrospective case series. Setting. Multicenter. Subjects and Methods. Twenty hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring ENT consultation from 3 designated COVID-19 hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Shenzhen were identified. Data on demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms and severity, consult reason, treatment, and personal protective equipment (PPE) use were collected and analyzed. Infection control strategies implemented for ENT outpatients and emergency room visits at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reported. Results. Median age was 63 years, 55% were male, and 95% were in severe or critical condition. Six tracheotomies were performed. Posttracheotomy outcomes were mixed (2 deaths, 2 patients comatose, all living patients still hospitalized). Other consults included epistaxis, pharyngitis, nasal congestion, hyposmia, rhinitis, otitis externa, dizziness, and tinnitus. At all hospitals, powered air-supply filter respirators (PAPRs) were used for tracheotomy or bleeding control. PAPR or N95-equivalent masks plus full protective clothing were used for other complaints. No inpatient ENT providers were infected. After implementation of infection control strategies for outpatient clinics, emergency visits, and surgeries, no providers were infected at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Conclusions and Relevance. COVID-19 patients require ENT consultation for many reasons, including tracheotomy. Otolaryngologists play an indispensable role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients but, due to their work, are at high risk of exposure. Appropriate protective strategies can prevent infection of otolaryngologists.
Objective To evaluate whether plasma ablation tonsillectomy is superior to other hot techniques in reducing postoperative morbidity. Data Sources The databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were used to search the literature, from inception to January 2, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared plasma ablation tonsillectomy with any other hot techniques were eligible. Review Methods A modified Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate pooled effects of postoperative pain, and the risk ratio (RR) was used for postoperative bleeding. Subgroup analysis was prespecified to explore the source of heterogeneity. The evidence quality of each outcome was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results A total of 15 RCTs were included (n = 1293). Comparing with other hot techniques, plasma ablation tonsillectomy may cause less pain on postoperative day 7 (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.23). However, the magnitude of the difference may be clinically meaningless. There were no significant differences not only in terms of postoperative pain on day 1 and day 3 but also in the incidence of postoperative bleeding, reoperation hemostasis, and return to normal diet and activities between the 2 groups. Conclusion There is still substantial uncertainty on postoperative pain, bleeding, and recovery. The current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate that plasma ablation is superior to other hot techniques for tonsillectomy.
Objective To investigate the potential correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and otitis media with effusion (OME) risk in children. Data Sources Electronic databases were searched, including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. Review Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted with Revman 5.3 software. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate infection-disease association. Results In total, 11 studies from 9 articles regarding H pylori infection and OME risk were enrolled in this meta-analysis. A significant association between H pylori infection and OME was detected for both adenoid samples from the case group (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.43-5.30; P = .002) and middle ear fluid samples from the case group (OR, 4.45; 95% CI, 2.52-7.88; P < .00001). Subgroup analyses suggested a stronger correlation in African and Asian populations. Conclusion This study indicated the correlation between H pylori infection and increased risk of OME in children, especially in African and Asian populations. Further well-designed studies regarding the white population are strongly recommended in the future.
Patients with a laryngectomy are at increased risk for droplet-transmitted diseases and, therefore, COVID-19, which has now caused a worldwide pandemic. Adaptive measures to protect patients with a laryngectomy and their families were designed and implemented in the Hong Kong SAR (HK). Driven by the fear of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2003, hospitals in HK have since modified infection control routines to prevent a repeat public health nightmare. To face COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, we have adapted guidelines for our patients with a laryngectomy. Contact precautions, droplet precautions with physical barriers, and hand and equipment hygiene are our mainstays of prevention against COVID-19, and sharing these routines is the aim of this article. The COVID-19 pandemic is still roaring ahead. Awareness and precautions for patients with a laryngectomy who may be at higher risk are outlined here and should be maintained during the current pandemic.
Objective To quantitatively analyze corrective saccade (CS) gain and further characterize the specific relationship between vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain and CS gain in patients with vestibular loss and healthy controls. Study Design Prospective combined with retrospective study. Setting Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Subjects and Methods Forty patients with unilateral vestibular loss and 40 participants with normal vestibular function were subjected to video head impulse testing (vHIT). The analysis of the horizontal semicircular canal VOR and CS gains was based on individual head impulses. Results The patient group had significantly higher CS gain and lower VOR gain than the control group (P< .001). While there was no significant correlation between VOR and CS gains in the control group after adjusting for age and sex (P= .689), VOR gain negatively correlated with CS gain in the patient group (r= -0.853,P< .001). The specific relationship between VOR and CS gains was characterized as y = -1.17x + 1.12 (x: VOR gain, y: CS gain;r(2)= 0.732,P< .001) in the patient group. Conclusions In healthy participants, CS was not correlated with VOR gain, suggesting that CS is not due to VOR hypofunction. In patients with unilateral vestibular loss, CS was closely associated with VOR gain and can almost correct gaze position errors required for visual stabilization. CS gain could be an important indicator to diagnose vestibular loss and help physicians identify abnormal vHIT curves caused by artifacts and irregular practices.
Objective. To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Study Design. Multicenter case series. Setting. Five tertiary care hospitals (3 in China, 1 in France, 1 in Germany). Subjects and Methods. In total, 394 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19-positive patients were screened, and those with olfactory or gustatory dysfunction were included. Data including demographics, COVID-19 severity, patient outcome, and the incidence and degree of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction were collected and analyzed. The Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to quantify olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. All subjects at 1 hospital (Shanghai) without subjective olfactory complaints underwent objective testing. Results. Of 394 screened subjects, 161 (41%) reported olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction and were included. Incidence of olfactory and/or gustatory disorders in Chinese (n = 239), German (n = 39), and French (n = 116) cohorts was 32%, 69%, and 49%, respectively. The median age of included subjects was 39 years, 92 of 161 (57%) were male, and 10 of 161 (6%) were children. Of included subjects, 10% had only olfactory or gustatory symptoms, and 19% had olfactory and/or gustatory complaints prior to any other COVID-19 symptom. Of subjects with objective olfactory testing, 10 of 90 demonstrated abnormal chemosensory function despite reporting normal subjective olfaction. Forty-three percent (44/102) of subjects with follow-up showed symptomatic improvement in olfaction or gustation. Conclusions. Olfactory and/or gustatory disorders may represent early or isolated symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. They may serve as a useful additional screening criterion, particularly for the identification of patients in the early stages of infection.
Objective To develop an easy-to-use nomogram for discrimination of malignant thyroid nodules and to compare diagnostic efficiency with the Kwak and American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS). Study Design Retrospective diagnostic study. Setting The Second Hospital of Shandong University. Subjects and Methods From March 2017 to April 2019, 792 patients with 1940 thyroid nodules were included into the training set; from May 2019 to December 2019, 174 patients with 389 nodules were included into the validation set. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop a nomogram for discriminating malignant nodules. To compare the diagnostic performance of the nomogram with the Kwak and ACR TI-RADS, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results The nomogram consisted of 7 factors: composition, orientation, echogenicity, border, margin, extrathyroidal extension, and calcification. In the training set, for all nodules, the area under the curve (AUC) for the nomogram was 0.844, which was higher than the Kwak TI-RADS (0.826,P= .008) and the ACR TI-RADS (0.810,P< .001). For the 822 nodules >1 cm, the AUC of the nomogram was 0.891, which was higher than the Kwak TI-RADS (0.852,P< .001) and the ACR TI-RADS (0.853,P< .001). In the validation set, the AUC of the nomogram was also higher than the Kwak and ACR TI-RADS (P< .05), each in the whole series and separately for nodules >1 or <= 1 cm. Conclusions When compared with the Kwak and ACR TI-RADS, the nomogram had a better performance in discriminating malignant thyroid nodules.
Our understanding of empty nose syndrome (ENS) continues to evolve. Prior studies evaluating airway augmentation to treat ENS did not use validated disease-specific questionnaires, making the true impact of these surgeries unclear. We present a case series of 10 patients with ENS (11 procedures) who underwent the inferior meatus augmentation procedure (IMAP) between September 2014 and May 2017. Subjective outcomes of IMAP included comparisons of preoperative and postoperative assessments (1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months) using the Empty Nose Syndrome 6-item Questionnaire (ENS6Q), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7), and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22). The decrement in ENS6Q scores observed maintained statistical significance at 6 months (P <= .001). Similar results were achieved with PHQ-9, GAD-7, and SNOT-22 (P <= .01, P <= .01, P <= .001, respectively). IMAP can dramatically improve the quality of life of ENS patients regarding both ENS-specific symptoms and psychological well-being.