Purpose The gross tumor volume (GTV) could be an independent prognostic factor for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LANSCLC). We aimed to develop and validate a novel integrated GTV-TNM stratification system to supplement LANSCLC sub-staging in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods We performed a retrospective review of 340 patients with unresectable LANSCLC receiving definitive CCRT. All included patients were divided into two randomized cohorts. Then the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were calculated to access the prognostic value of the integrated GTV-TNM stratification system, which was further validated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score and F1-score. Results The optimal outcome-based GTV cut-off values (70 and 180 cm(3)) of the modeling cohort were used to determine each patient's integrated GTV-TNM stratum in the whole cohort. Our results indicated that a lower integrated GTV-TNM stratum could had better overall survival and progression-free survival (all P < 0.001), which was recognized as an independent prognostic factor. Also, its prognostic value was robust in both the modeling and validation cohorts. Furthermore, the prognostic validity of the integrated GTV-TNM stratification system was validated by significantly improved AUC score (0.636 vs. 0.570, P = 0.027) and F1-score (0.655 vs. 0.615, P < 0.001), compared with TNM stage. Conclusions We proposed a novel integrated GTV-TNM stratification system to supplement unresectable LANSCLC sub-staging due to its prognostic value independent of TNM stage and other clinical characteristics, suggesting that it could be considered in individual treatment decision-making process.
Background Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) has increasingly drawn attention as recent researches demonstrated its unique role in the regulation of multiple fundamental processes such as apoptosis, proliferation and DNA damage repair. Most importantly, HIPK2 was shown to play regulatory role in inflammation and influence the phenotype and activity of fibroblasts. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of HIPK2 gene variant on risk of radiation pneumonitis for patients with pulmonary malignancies. Methods 169 lung cancer patients with radiotherapy were included in our prospective study and genotyped by Sanger Sequence method. Multivariable Cox hazard analysis and multiple testing were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all factors possibly related to the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP). Results Patients with Mean Lung Dose (MLD) >= 15Gy, Lung V-20 >= 24% had higher risk of RP >= grade 2 compared with those counterparts (HR = 1.888, 95% CI: 1.186-3.004, P = 0.007; HR = 2.126, 95% CI: 1.338-3.378, P = 0.001, respectively). Importantly, CC genotype of HIPK2: rs2030712 were strongly related to an increased occurrence of RP >= grade 2 (HR = 2.146, 95% CI: 1.215-3.791, P = 0.009). Conclusion HIPK2: rs2030712 was found to be significantly related to RP of grade >= 2 in our cohort, and may thus be one of the important predictors of severe RP before radiotherapy, if further validated in larger population.
Background To explore the survival and side effects of repeated CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (CK-SBRT) on hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Methods 24 HCC patients were collected at The Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from November 2011 to July 2016. They received second-course CK-SBRT with a prescribed dose of 50(48-55) Gy/5-8fx, and a single dose of 10 (7-11) Gy/fx. Cumulative overall survival rates (OS), progression-free survival rates (PFS) and local control rates (LC) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Results All patients finished their radiotherapy plans. The 1-,2- and 3-year cumulative OS rate were 95.8,81.1 and 60.8%. The 1-,2- and 3-year LC rate were 95.5,90.7 and 90.7%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year PFS were 74.8, 49.2 and 39.4%, respectively. 16 patients complained of fatigue during second-course therapy, 2 patients showed Grade 2 gastrointestinal reaction, 1 patient was diagnosed radiation-induced liver disease and none died. PFS was significantly higher in the interval time < 12 months group than in the interval time >= 12 months group (p = 0.030). Conclusions It is preliminarily believed that re-CK-SBRT is an effective and safe treatment for HCC patients, but the treatment criteria should be strictly controlled.
Objective The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) and gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is unclear, with conflicting results from nonrandomized studies. We reported a meta-analysis to determine the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CNKI databases were searched to identify clinical trials of postoperative ART versus no radiotherapy for EHCC and GBC. The obtained data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0 statistical software. Differences between two groups were estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total of 21 clinical trials involving 1465 EHCC and GBC patients were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed the following: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was higher in the ART group than in the no radiotherapy group (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81, p = 0.0002). The 5-year OS rate was significantly higher for those with lymph node-positive disease (OR = 0.15; 95% CI 0.07-0.35; p < 0.00001) and margin-positive disease (OR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.19-0.85; p = 0.02) in the ART group than in the no radiotherapy group. ART had a tendency to bring benefit to the 5-year OS of patients with margin-negative disease but the difference was not statistically significant (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.30-1,07, p = 0.08). The local recurrence rate was significantly lower in the ART group than in the no radiotherapy group (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.38-0.76, p = 0.0004), and there was no significant difference in the distant metastasis rate between the two groups (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 0.95-1.87, p = 0.10). Conclusions A meta-analysis of the existing study results showed that compared with no radiotherapy, ART is an effective postoperative treatment for EHCC and GBC.
Purpose To compare the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy versus conventional fractionated radiotherapy in postmastectomy breast cancer using meta-analysis. Methods The PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Wan Fang and CNKI databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials comparing hypofractionated radiotherapy versus conventional fractionated radiotherapy in postmastectomy breast cancer. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint, and disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), acute skin toxicity, acute lung toxicity, late skin toxicity, lymphedema,, shoulder restriction, and late cardiac related toxicity were the secondary endpoints. Results Twenty-five controlled clinical trials involving 3871 postmastectomy breast cancer patients were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria. The meta-analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in OS (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.87 similar to 1.33, P = 0.49), DFS (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.91 similar to 1.40, P = 0.28), LRR (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.76 similar to 1.33, P = 0.96), DM (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.85 similar to 1.58, P = 0.34), acute skin toxicity (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.67 similar to 1.32, P = 0.72), acute lung toxicity (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.74 similar to 1.20, P = 0.62), late skin toxicity (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.75 similar to 1.27, P = 0.88), lymphedema (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.77 similar to 1.28, P = 0.94), shoulder restriction (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43 similar to 1.31, P = 0.31), or late cardiac related toxicity (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.82 similar to 1.65, P = 0.39) between the two groups. Conclusions The results of this study show that compared to conventional fractionated radiotherapy, hypofractionated radiotherapy is not significantly different with respect to efficacy or toxicity in postmastectomy breast cancer. Additional large randomized clinical trials are needed to further confirm this conclusion.
Background There is a lack of data on the biologically effective dose and the efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and this study was conducted to explore the relation between BED and efficacy. Methods This study is designed as a mono-center study. The participants are randomized into three group, and received the following recommended schedule: 49Gy/7f, 54Gy/6f and 55Gy/5f with BED10 in correspondence to 83.3Gy, 102.6Gy and 115.5Gy. The primary outcome measures are to calculate local control rates (LC), overall survival rates (OS) and progression-free survival rates (PFS). The secondary outcome measures are to observe radiation-induced liver injury (RILD) rates, Child-Pugh score and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15) value before and after CK-SBRT. Moreover, gastrointestinal toxicities are also observed. Discussion There is no uniform standard for CK-SBRT dose schedule of hepatocellular carcinoma. We propose to conduct a study determining the optimal CK-SBRT schedule of hepatocellular carcinoma patients (<= 5 cm). The trial protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of 302 Hospital of PLA (People's Liberation Army). The Ethics number is 2017111D.
Background Both plan quality and robustness were investigated through comparing some dosimetric metrics between intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and helical tomotherapy based intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. Methods Both a spot-scanning robust (SRO) IMPT plan and a helical tomotherapy robust (TRO) IMRT plan were generated for each of 18 patients. In order to evaluate the quality of nominal plans without dose perturbations, planning scores (PS) on clinical target volume (CTV) and five organs at risk (OARs) based on clinical experience, and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) of rectum and sigmoid were calculated based on Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Dose volume histogram bands width (DVHBW) were calculated in 28 perturbed scenarios to evaluate plan robustness. Results Compared with TRO, the average scores of SRO nominal plans were higher in target metrics [V-46.8Gy, V-50Gy, Conformity and Homogeneity](16.5 vs. 15.1), and in OARs metrics (60.9 vs. 53.3), including bladder [V-35,V-45, D-mean,D-2cc], rectum [V-40,V-45,D-2cc,D-max], bowel [V-35,V-40,V-45, D-max], sigmoid [V-40,D-max] and femoral heads [V-30,D-max]. Meanwhile, NTCP calculation showed that the toxicities of rectum and sigmoid in SRO were lower than those in TRO (rectum: 2.8% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.05; sigmoid: 5.2% vs. 5.7%, p < 0.05). DVHBW in target coverage for the SRO plan was smaller than that for the TRO plan (0.6% vs. 2.1%), which means that the SRO plan generated a more robust plan in target. Conclusion Better CTV coverage and OAR Sparing were obtained in SRO nominal plan. Based on NTCP calculation, SRO was expected to allow a small reduction in rectal toxicity. Furthermore, SRO generated a more robust plan in CTV target coverage.
Purpose To analyze patterns of failure in patients with LA-NSCLC who received definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to build a nomogram for predicting the failure patterns in this population of patients. Materials and methods Clinicopathological data of patients with LA-NSCLC who received definitive chemoradiotherapy and follow-up between 2013 and 2016 in our hospital were collected. The endpoint was the first failure after definitive chemoradiotherapy. With using elastic net regression and 5-fold nested cross-validation, the optimal model with better generalization ability was selected. Based on the selected model and corresponding features, a nomogram prediction model was built. This model was also validated by ROC curves, calibration curve and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results With a median follow-up of 28 months, 100 patients experienced failure. There were 46 and 54 patients who experience local failure and distant failure, respectively. Predictive model including 9 factors (smoking, pathology, location, EGFR mutation, age, tumor diameter, clinical N stage, consolidation chemotherapy and radiation dose) was finally built with the best performance. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) with 5-fold nested cross-validation was 0.719, which was better than any factors alone. The calibration curve revealed a satisfactory consistency between the predicted distant failure rates and the actual observations. DCA showed most of the threshold probabilities in this model were with good net benefits. Conclusion Clinicopathological factors could collaboratively predict failure patterns in patients with LA-NSCLC who are receiving definitive chemoradiotherapy. A nomogram was built and validated based on these factors, showing a potential predictive value in clinical practice.
Background Although whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) provides palliation and prophylaxis, reduces local recurrence probability and improves overall survival, it is evident that WBRT is associated with neurocognitive deficits due to radiation induced damage of the hippocampus. Therefore, minimizing hippocampal dose to the least possible level is of high clinical relevance. In dual-arc conventional volumetric modulated arc therapy (dac-VMAT), the large irradiation field for whole brain planned target volume (PTV) requires a wide jaw opening in which substantial low dose volume to the hippocampus may be produced due to suboptimal multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements. The present study investigates the potential of a radiation therapy technique with split-arc and reduced field size, namely split-arc partial-field volumetric modulated arc therapy (sapf-VMAT) to spare the hippocampus during WBRT. Methods Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of 20 patients with brain metastases were retrieved in this retrospective planning study. The hippocampus was manually delineated by single radiation oncologist strictly following the RTOG 0933 atlas definition. Plans delivering 30 Gy in 10 fractions were generated for each patient using dac-VMAT and sapf-VMAT. Dosimetric parameters from both techniques were compared by paired t-test. Results The results demonstrated that radiation dose to the hippocampus was significantly reduced using sapf-VMAT relative to dac-VMAT plans. sapf-VMAT (7.86Gy, p = 0.001) had significantly lowered average D-100% compared to dac-VMAT (9.23 Gy). Decrease in hippocampus D-max using sapf-VMAT (13.23 Gy, p = 0.001) was statistically significant when compared to dac-VMAT (16.33 Gy). The resulting mean dose to the hippocampus was 9.16 Gy for the for sapf-VMAT. Mean dose of sapf-VMAT was significantly lower than dac-VMAT (10.85 Gy, p < 0.05). In both eyes, sapf-VMAT demonstrated significantly lower D-mean compared to dac-VMAT (p < 0.05). Whole brain PTV coverage was not compromised in both techniques. Conclusion sapf-VMAT has demonstrated significant dose reduction to the hippocampus and both eyes compared to dac-VMAT.
Background Neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been shown to improve local control; however, whether it can improve overall survival (OS) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients remains controversial. We therefore aimed to examine the benefits of surgery alone, neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT), adjuvant RT, and surgery plus chemotherapy in stage II (T3/4N0M0) and III (any T and N + M0) on the OS of rectal cancer patients. Methods Date from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database diagnosed between 2004 and 2016 were used. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare patient prognoses across different treatment modalities. Cox hazard regression analysis were used to identify independent predictors of OS. Results For stage T3/4N0M0 patients, neoadjuvant RT, adjuvant RT, and surgery plus chemotherapy resulted in similar OS (all p > 0.05; mean survival, 115.89 months (M), 111.97 M, and 117.22 M, respectively), with better OS observed in these patients than in patients who underwent surgery alone (all p < 0.001, mean survival, 88.96 M). For stage T1/2N + M0 patients, neoadjuvant RT, adjuvant RT, and surgery plus chemotherapy resulted in similar OS (all p > 0.05; mean survival, 121.50 M, 124.25 M, and 121.20 M, respectively), with better OS observed in these patients than in patients who underwent surgery alone (all p < 0.001, mean survival 83.81 M). For stage T3/4N + M0 patients, neoadjuvant RT (HR = 0.436; 95% CI, 0.396 similar to 0.478; p < 0.001) resulted in significantly longer OS than adjuvant RT and surgery plus chemotherapy (mean survival, 104.47 M, 93.94 M, and 93.62 M, respectively), with better OS observed in these patients than in patients who underwent surgery alone (all p < 0.001, mean survival 54.87 M). Older age (> 60 years), black race, unmarried status, high tumour grade, and tumour size > 5 cm were all associated with a poor prognosis (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Neoadjuvant RT, adjuvant RT, and surgery plus chemotherapy results in better OS than surgery alone in LARC patients. Neoadjuvant RT has the potential to be highly recommended over adjuvant RT and surgery plus chemotherapy for T3/4N + M0 patients; however, it showed no OS advantage over adjuvant RT or surgery plus chemotherapy for T3/4N0M0 and T1/2N + M0 patients.
Background We sought to establish a conversion curve to convert the RBE-weighted doses calculated by local effect model I (LEM) (LEM RBE-weighted doses) in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) to the RBE-weighted doses calculated by microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) (MKM RBE-weighted doses). We also converted the LEM dose constraints (RBE-weighted dose constraints in LEM plans) for the brain stem, spinal cord, and optic nerve based on this curve. Methods Data from 20 patients with rNPC receiving carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in our hospital were collected. LEM in Raystation (V8A, Raystation, Sweden) was used to generate treatment plans. The clinical target volume CTV1 (GTV + 5 mm) was given 3 Gy (RBE) per fraction. Ninety-nine percent of target volumes should be covered by 95% of the prescriptions; the maximum doses of the brainstem and spinal cord were < 45 Gy (RBE) and < 30 Gy (RBE), respectively. The doses covering 20% volumes of optical nerves/chiasms D20 were < 30 Gy (RBE). Then physical doses of the LEM plans were recalculated by using MKM in Raystation to generate MKM plans. A series of conversion factors (i.e., the ratio of LEM RBE-weighted dose to MKM RBE-weighted dose) was then obtained by using an isovolumetric dose method. The LEM plan prescriptions (LEM prescription) and dose constraints of the organs at risk (OARs) (OAR constraints) were converted to the corresponding MKM prescriptions and dose constraints using this conversion curve. Results For the CTV1 fractional RBE-weighted dose prescription of 3.00 Gy (RBE) and CTV2 of 2.70 Gy (RBE) in LEM plans, the conversion factors (LEM RBE-weighted dose/MKM RBE-weighted dose) were 1.37 (CI 95% 1.35-1.39) and 1.46 (1.41-1.51), respectively. The average conversion factors from 1.37 (CI 95% 1.33-1.41) to 3.09 (2.94-3.24) corresponded to the LEM fractionated doses from 2.86 Gy (RBE) to 0.24 Gy (RBE), including the doses constraining upon OARs. LEM RBE-weighted doses of 30 Gy (RBE) and 45 Gy (RBE) in 21 fractions were converted to MKM RBE-weighted doses of 16.64 Gy (RBE) and 30.72 Gy (RBE) in 16 fractions. Conclusions This conversion curve could be used to convert LEM RBE-weighted doses to MKM RBE-weighted doses for patients with rNPC receiving CIRT, providing dose references for re-irradiation therapy.
Background This study directs to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) alone versus IMRT plus chemotherapy in intermediate-risk NPC (stage II and T3N0M0). Methods A total of 124 patients with stage II and T3N0M0 NPC were pair-matched (1:1 ratio) to form two groups: an IMRT-alone group and an IMRT/chemotherapy group. Survival outcomes (overall survival [OS], disease-free survival [DFS], locoregional relapse-free survival [LRRFS], distant metastasis-free survival [DMFS]) and treatment-related grade 3-4 acute toxicity events were compared between the groups. Results Survival outcomes for patients with stage II and T3N0M0 NPC were quiet comparable between patients treated with IMRT alone versus patients treated with IMRT/chemotherapy: 5-year OS was 91.9% vs. 90.3%, respectively (P = 0.727); DFS was 87.1% vs. 88.7%, respectively (P = 0.821); LRFFS was 96.8% vs. 95.2%, respectively (P = 0.646), and DMFS was 91.9% vs. 91.5%, respectively (P = 0.955). Grade 3 acute toxicities were significantly higher with IMRT/chemotherapy than with IMRT alone: mucositis, 15% vs. 5% (P = 0.004); leukopenia/neutropenia, 8% vs. 1% (P < 0.015); and nausea/vomiting, 22% vs. 3% (P < 0.001). Conclusion For intermediate-risk (stage II and T3N0M0) NPC patients, the addition of chemotherapy to IMRT does not appear to provide any survival benefit. Moreover, grade 3 acute toxicities are also more common in patients receiving IMRT plus chemotherapy.
Background Hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation is a standard adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This study evaluates the plan quality and efficacy of an in-house-developed automated radiotherapy treatment planning algorithm for hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy. Methods A cohort of 99 node-negative left-sided breast cancer patients completed hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation with six-field IMRT for 42.56 Gy in 16 daily fractions from year 2016 to 2018 at a tertiary center were re-planned with an in-house-developed algorithm. The automated plan-generating C#-based program is developed in a Varian ESAPI research mode. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) and other dosimetric parameters of the automated and manual plans were directly compared. Results The average time for generating an autoplan was 5 to 6 min, while the manual planning time ranged from 1 to 1.5 h. There was only a small difference in both the gantry angles and the collimator angles between the autoplans and the manual plans (ranging from 2.2 to 5.3 degrees). Autoplans and manual plans performed similarly well in hotspot volume and PTV coverage, with the autoplans performing slightly better in the ipsilateral-lung-sparing dose parameters but were inferior in contralateral-breast-sparing. The autoplan dosimetric quality did not vary with different breast sizes, but for manual plans, there was worse ipsilateral-lung-sparing (V-4Gy) in larger or medium-sized breasts than in smaller breasts. Autoplans were generally superior than manual plans in CI (1.24 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.30 +/- 0.09, p < 0.01) and MU (1010 +/- 46 vs. 1205 +/- 187, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our study presents a well-designed standardized fully automated planning algorithm for optimized whole-breast radiotherapy treatment plan generation. A large cohort of 99 patients were re-planned and retrospectively analyzed. The automated plans demonstrated similar or even better dosimetric quality and efficacy in comparison with the manual plans. Our result suggested that the autoplanning algorithm has great clinical applicability potential.
Background We investigated the risk factors of radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction, then combined the clinical factors and optimum thyroid dosimetric parameters to predict the incidence rate of hypothyroidism (HT) and to guide individualized treatment. Methods A total of 206 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated at the Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences between January 2015 and August 2018 were included. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data, including mean dose, absolute volume, V-20, V-25, V-30, V-35, V-40, V-45, V-50,V- V-55, and V-60 were extracted and used as dosimetric parameters. A logistic regression analysis model was built to identify predictors related to HT occurring within 2 years. Results Sex, N stage, thyroid volume, mean thyroid dose, and thyroid V-20 and V-50 were significantly different between patients with and without HT. Logistic regression analysis showed that N stage, thyroid volume, and thyroid V-50 were independent predictors of HT. The radiosensitivity of the thyroid decreased as the thyroid volume increased. Patients with N stage > 1 had significantly higher HT incidence (37.38%) than patients with N stage <= 1 (13.11%). The incidence of HT was 54.55% in patients with thyroid V-50 > 24% and was 34.15% in patients with thyroid V-50 <= 24%. Conclusions The incidence of HT is significantly associated with N stage, thyroid volume, and thyroid V-50. More attention should be paid to patients with NPC with thyroid volume <= 12.82 cm(3) and advanced N stage disease.
Background The treatment for brain metastases in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare different brain radiotherapy treatments on SCLC patients with brain metastases. Methods In this multi-center retrospective study, SCLC patients who had undergone whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases from January 2012 to December 2018 were retrospectively screened. Results A total of 263 eligible SCLC patients were included in this study, among whom, 73 were women and 190 were men. According to accepted brain radiotherapy, the remaining patients were divided into WBRT plus focal radiation boost (WBRT+boost), WBRT, and SRS groups. In pairwise comparisons of the overall survival (OS), WBRT+boost group led to longer survival than did WBRT both in all patients (17.9 vs 8.7 months; P < 0.001) and 140 matched patients (17.9 vs 11.7 months; P = 0.045). There were no significant differences in OS between WBRT+boost and SRS groups in all patients (17.9 vs 14.5 months; P = 0.432). Among 74 matched patients between WBRT+boost and SRS groups, however, patients who received WBRT+boost led to a longer survival than did SRS alone (21.8 vs 12.9 months; P = 0.040). In pairwise comparison of the intracranial progression-free survival time (iPFS), WBRT+boost group also showed survival advantages over WBRT (10.8 vs 6.5 months; P = 0.005) and SRS groups (10.8 vs 7.5 months; P = 0.032). Conclusion Due to the SCLC-derived multiple brain metastases and better survival time, focal radiation boost combined with adjuvant WBRT may be a preferred strategy for SCLC patients with brain metastases.