Background Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare disease for which there is no available standard treatment. We aimed to ascertain the safety and activity of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) with high-dose methotrexate and intrathecal chemotherapy as CNS-oriented therapy for patients with previously untreated IVLBCL. Methods PRIMEUR-IVL is a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial at 22 hospitals in Japan. Eligible patients had untreated histologically confirmed IVLBCL, were aged 20-79 years, had an Eastern Cooperative Group performance status of 0-3, and had no apparent CNS involvement at diagnosis. Patients received three cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab 375 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1 [except cycle one, which was on day 8]; cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) [maximum 2.0 mg] intravenously on day 1 of cycle one and day 2 of cycles two and three; and prednisolone 100 mg/day orally on days 1-5 of cycle one and days 2-6 of cycles two and three) followed by two cycles of rituximab with high-dose methotrexate (3.5 g/m(2) intravenously on day 2 of cycles four and five) every 2 weeks and three additional cycles of R-CHOP. Intrathecal chemotherapy (methotrexate 15 mg, cytarabine 40 mg, and prednisolone 10 mg) was administered four times during the R-CHOP phase. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival. Efficacy analyses were done in all enrolled patients; safety analyses were done in all enrolled and treated patients. The trial is registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000005707) and the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCTs041180165); the trial is ongoing for long-term follow-up. Findings Between June 16, 2011, and July 21, 2016, 38 patients were enrolled, of whom 37 were eligible; one patient was excluded because of a history of testicular lymphoma. Median follow-up was 3.9 years (IQR 2.5-5.5). 2-year progression-free survival was 76% (95% CI 58-87). The most frequent adverse events of grade 3-4 were neutropenia and leucocytopenia, which were reported in all 38 (100%) patients. Serious adverse events were hypokalaemia, febrile neutropenia with hypotension, hypertension, and intracerebral haemorrhage (reported in one [3%] patient each). No treatment-related deaths occurred during protocol treatment. Interpretation R-CHOP combined with rituximab and high-dose methotrexate plus intrathecal chemotherapy is a safe and active treatment for patients with IVLBCL without apparent CNS involvement at diagnosis, and this regimen warrants future investigation. Copyright (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Blocking the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands is a promising treatment strategy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed to assess the antitumour activity and safety of the anti-PD-1 inhibitor camrelizumab in pretreated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods This is a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, phase 2 trial done at 13 study sites in China. Eligible patients were aged 18 years and older with a histological or cytological diagnosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, had progressed on or were intolerant to previous systemic treatment, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0-1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive camrelizumab 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 or 3 weeks, via a centralised interactive web-response system using block randomisation (block size of four). The primary endpoints were objective response (per blinded independent central review) and 6-month overall survival, in all randomly assigned patients who had at least one dose of study treatment. Safety was analysed in all treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT02989922, and follow-up is ongoing, but enrolment is closed. Findings Between Nov15,2016, and Nov16,2017,303 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 220 eligible patients were randomly assigned and among whom 217 received camrelizumab (109 patients were given treatment every 2 weeks and 108 every 3 weeks). Median follow-up was 12.5 months (IQR 5-7-15-5). Objective response was reported in 32 (14.7%; 95% CI 10.3-20-2) of 217 patients. The overall survival probability at 6 months was 74.4% (95% CI 68.0-79.7)]. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 47 (22%) of 217 patients; the most common were increased aspartate aminotransferase (ten [5%]) and decreased neutrophil count (seven [3%]). Two deaths were judged by the investigators to be potentially treatment-related (one due to liver dysfunction and one due to multiple organ failure). Interpretation Camrelizumab showed antitumour activity in pretreated Chinese patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with manageable toxicities, and might represent a new treatment option for these patients. Copyright (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oncology nurses are at the heart of tackling the increasing global burden of cancer. Their contribution is unique because of the scale and the diversity of care roles and responsibilities in cancer care. In this Series paper, to celebrate the International Year of the Nurse and Midwife, we highlight the contribution and impact of oncology nurses along the cancer care continuum. Delivering people-centred integrated care and optimal communication are essential components of oncology nursing care, which are often played down. More oncology nurses using, doing, and leading research will further show the key nursing impact on care as part of a team. The oncology nurse influence in saving lives through prevention and early detection of cancer is noteworthy. Supportive care, the central pillar of oncology nursing, enables and empowers people to self-manage where possible. Globally, oncology nurses make a great positive difference to cancer care worldwide; their crucial contribution throughout the continuum of care warrants the inclusion and promotion of nursing in every country's cancer strategy. 2020 is the year of the nurse: let us take this learning to the future.