Use of non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) brush on immobilization of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) onto dentin bonding substrate, and resulting antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans were investigated. A bonding substrate with several-micron-demineralized layer was created from human dentin. DMAHDM was applied onto the demineralized layer with or without plasma exposure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed to verify immobilization/grafting of DMAHDM onto the substrate. Antibacterial activity of the resulting substrate was assessed by using colony-forming unit (CFU) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Effects of saliva pellicle treatment and aging process on the above substrate were also evaluated. The SEM/FTIR results demonstrated that NTAP could induce DMAHDM immobilization onto dentin substrate, which was further verified via quantitative FTIR analysis. Comparing with non-plasma-treated, the plasma-treated substrate, with CFU 4 log lower, exhibited much stronger inhibitory effects, which were minimally affected by saliva or aging. The DMAHDM-immobilized dentin substrate showed effective and sustained antibacterial characteristics.
Zirconia is commonly used in dental applications. It has been reported that surface-modified zirconia implants showed better performance in vivo than machined zirconia implants. Silk fibroin electrogel is a good candidate for controlled drug delivery; however, the use of silk fibroin electrogel on zirconia implants has not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate a method to coat zirconia implants with silk fibroin electrogel and evaluate the mechanical and biological properties of the coating. The results show that the wettability of the coating was close to that of sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA)-treated zirconia, and the bond strength was larger than that of the coating prepared from silk fibroin aqueous solution. ATR-FTIR spectra provided evidence that the secondary structure changed during the electrogelation process. Culturing cells on the coating revealed its nontoxicity to osteoblast-like cells. Thus, it can be suggested that a silk fibroin electrogel coating is a promising biocompatible and degradable drug-delivery material for zirconia implants.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of rats were isolated and Bio-Oss (R) and R.T.R (R) materials were used in this study. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in each group was calculated. The ability of adhesion and proliferation of BMSCs on Bio-Oss (R) and R.T.R (R) increased with time, but they were significantly higher on R.T.R (R) than that of Bio-Oss (R) at all time points (p<0.05). Compared with Bio-Oss (R), R.T.R (R) could promote the expression and activity of ALP in BMSCs, and the expression of bone formation related transcription factors bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1), Cbfa1 and osteoblast marker genes ALP, collagen I, osteopontin, osseomucin and osteocalcin. The expression levels of cbfa1, ALP, collagen I, osteopontin, osseomucin and osteocalcin were inhibited after downregulated expression of BMP-1 in BMSCs and inoculation with R.T.R (R). R.T.R (R) could up-regulate BMP-1 expression and cbfa1 expression through BMPs/SMAD signaling pathway, thereby promoting the expression of ALP, collagen I, osteopontin, osseomucin and osteocalcin and promoting osteoblast differentiation.
This study was to evaluate whether UV light irradiation and He plasma treatment of zirconia disks enhances its biocompatibility with human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and to compare the difference of two methods. Zirconia disks were prepared and divided into three groups: UVC light treatment (Group UV), He plasma (Group P), and control group. The surface morphology, wettability were analyzed. The cultured HGFs' adhesive density, morphology, proliferation and collagen synthesis were measured. After UV light and plasma treatment, contact angles decreased. HGFs' adhesion and proliferation in Group P was the highest (p<0.05) at each time point. HGFs on Group P also released the highest level of Col-1 after 3 and 7 days. Our study demonstrated that plasma and UV light treatment on smooth zirconia improved the hydrophilic property of surface in different mechanism and He plasma had the better effect on cells adhesion, proliferation, and especially on collagen synthesis.
Prostheses and implants have been widely utilized in the orthopedic and dental fields. Nowadays, significant advances have been made in the structural and functional connection between living bone and prostheses, especially in the presence of compromised bone quantity/quality. Despite improvement in the treatment outcomes after augmentation, there are still challenges to meet the clinical demands due to limited materials available. In the current study, we investigated the effects of nano-nacre particles as an alternative material on stimulating bone cell differentiation and formation. Mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured on nano-nacre/type I collagen composite scaffold (NN-ICS) and type I collagen scaffold (ICS). Generated nano-nacre particles showed controlled release of protein and calcium for a period of 36 days. NN-ICS significantly contributed to the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts compared to ICS controls. Our data showed that nano-nacre particles could serve as a candidate of bone substitution material, which potentially contributed to treatment outcomes in cases with compromised bone quality and/or quality.
This study investigated the role played by different pH environments in the deterioration of bonds between Y-TZP and Ti-6Al-4V: One hundred and thirty-five specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following storage media at 37 degrees C: (1) distilled water, pH 6.9, DW; (2) acidic solution, pH 1-2, CS; and (3) alkaline solution, pH 10-11, KS. Shear bond strength (SBS) tests were carried out at the 4-, 14-, and 30-day storage time intervals. The morphology characteristics and elements distribution of the fracture surfaces were analyzed. CS-30 showed the lowest mean SBS and the least amount of residual cement on the Ti-6Al-4V surface after the SBS tests. Bond strength tended to decrease with increasing storage time for the acidic group. Alkaline and neutral media showed little influence on the SBS of Y-TZP to Ti-6Al-4V in 30 days. Acidic environments should be properly avoided to obtain reliable long-term bonding strength between Ti-6Al-4V and Y-TZP.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising biomaterials in the medical field, especially in tissue engineering of bone. However, the use of CNTs is largely confined by its unfavorable solubility and toxicity. To improve solubility and biocompatibility of CNTs, functionalization has been proven to be an effective strategy. Although various functionalized CNTs have been extensively studied, only few CNTs have the desired qualities. We compared the toxicity of several promising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on rat bone-marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs). Cell experiments showed that while acid oxidation (AO)-MWCNTs and Raw-MWCNTs exhibited significant toxicity on BMSCs, polyethylene glycols (PEG)-MWCNTs and hydroxyapatite (HA)-MWCNTs had favorable biocompatibility and a trivial effect on BMSCs. Possible mechanisms for the cytotoxicity on BMSCs included mitochondrisome and deoxyribonucleic acid damage, increased oxidative stress and damaging of cellular membranes. Our data indicated that PEG-MWCNTs and HA-MWCNTs may be promising materials for bio-related applications.
The objective was to evaluate the fracture resistance properties of maxillary incisors with flared canals restored with computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) integrated glass fiber post-and-core. Thirty prepared flared root canals were selected in nitro and restored with CAD/CAM integrated fiber post-and-core (Group A), prefabricated fiber posts (Group B), and cast gold alloy (Group C), respectively. After submitted to fatigue loading, each specimen was subjected to a static loading until fracture. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to determine statistical differences. The mean fracture strengths of Groups A and C were significantly higher than those of Group B, whereas no differences were observed between Groups A and C. In addition, reparable fracture modes were mostly observed in Group A while irreparable and catastrophic fractures were mostly found in Groups B and C. These results demonstrate that, in comparison to traditional treatments, CAD/CAM integrated glass fiber post-and-core restoration significantly enhances the fracture resistance of flared root canals.
In this study, we evaluate the effect of co-doping with TiO2 nanoparticles and sisal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) on the physical and biological properties of a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Test samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and subjected to mechanical tests to evaluate the mechanical performances. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Candida albicans, and cytotoxicity experiments were conducted using L-929 cells. Unmodified GIC served as a control. Compared with the control group, the co-doped group demonstrated an increased compressive strength of 18.9%, an increased shear bond strength of 51%, the dissolution decreased by 18.3%, the volume wear rate was reduced by 5%. The antifungal effect against C. albicans was increased by 22%. In cytotoxicity experiments, the co-doped group had a slightly negative effect on the viability of L-929 cells.
The objectives were to develop a novel rechargeable cement containing amorphous calcium-phosphate nanoparticles (nanoACP) to suppress tooth decay. Five cements were made with: (1) 60% glass particles (experimental control); (2) 40% glass+20% nanoACP; (3) 30% glass+30% nanoACP; (4) 20% glass+40% nanoACP; (5) 10% glass+50% nanoACP. Groups 1-4 had enamel bond strengths similar to Transbond XT (3M) and Vitremer (3M) (p>0.1). The nanoACP cement had calcium and phosphate ion release which increased with increasing nanoACP fillers. The recharged cement had substantial ion re-release continuously for 14 days after a single recharge. Ion re-release did not decrease with increasing recharge/re-release cycles. Groups 3-5 maintained a safe pH of medium (>5.5); however, control cements had cariogenic pH of medium (<4.5) due to biofilm acid. Therefore, nanoACP cement (1) had good bond strength to enamel, (2) possessed calcium and phosphate ion recharge/re-release capability, and (3) raised biofilm pH to a safe level to inhibit caries.
To improve initial osteoblast adhesion and subsequent osseointegration, TiO2 nanotubes layer was constructed on the titanium (Ti) surface by anodic oxidation (AO), with an additional hydroxyapatite (HA) coating to form the AO/HA surface. Tests on in vitro cellular activity displayed that the AO surface, especially the AO/HA surface, promoted initial adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells. The modified AO and AO/HA surfaces further presented an up-regulated gene expression of osteogenic and adhesion markers collagen type 1 (COL), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and vinculin. In addition, in vivo experiments with a rat model demonstrated that the AO surface, particularly the AO/HA surface, achieved earlier osseointegration and a superior bone bonding ability compared with Ti. Our study shed light on a synergistic role played by nanotopography and HA in promoting osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and osseointegration, thus suggesting a promising method for better modifying the implant surface.
This study aimed to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance and bending properties and torque/force generation of WaveOne Gold (WOG) Primary in comparison with WaveOne (WO) Primary and Reciproc (RE) R25. A cyclic fatigue test revealed that the WOG Primary took significantly longer time to fracture compared with the WO Primary (p<0.05). The WOG Primary had the smallest load values at a deflection of 0.5 and 2 mm (p<0.05), as measured with a cantilever bending test. Torque/force measurement demonstrated that maximum upward force and maximum counterclockwise torque values in the WOG Primary were significantly lower than those in the RE R25 (p<0.05). Under the present experimental condition, the WOG Primary showed a higher cyclic fatigue resistance compared with the WO Primary, a higher flexibility compared with the WO Primary and RE R25, and generated a significantly lower maximum torque compared with the RE R25.
Laser scanning is one of the methods that can be used for surface treatments of zirconia. Application of the laser to the surface of zirconia has diverse effects, depending on the type of laser. A carbon dioxide (CO2) laser has high irradiation power and can alter the surface properties. This study investigated the surface coating of zirconia as a core material that subsequently coated with a veneering ceramic (v-c) material. This study compared laser scanning and conventional sintering processes. Various properties including surface topography, interface evaluation, phase transformation, elemental compositions, failure mode patterns, and contact angle were examined through X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Results were confirmed that the bond strength between the v-c and the substrate recorded through laser scanning was higher than that determined through conventional sintering.
Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) is supposed to be a promising candidate for apatite substitute in hard tissue engineering. We aimed to investigate the effect of nano-HAP particles on the proliferation of odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells compared with conventional hydroxyapatite (c-HAP). HAP in diameter of similar to 20 nm (np20), similar to 70 nm (np70) and similar to 200 nm (c-HAP) were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Inverted microscope and MTT assay were used to detect the morphology and proliferation rate of MDPC-23 cells; TEM was used to reveal the internalization of HAP. We found that nano-HAP (np20 and np70), especially np20 expressed obvious growth-promoting effect on MDPC-23 cells compared with c-HAP, which caused the most vacuole in MDPC-23 cells. These results suggest that nano-HAP may be an optimal choice of apatite substitute for MDPC-23 cells on the aspect of cell proliferation.
This paper investigated the effects of different contents of negative ion powder on the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of the alginate impression materials. The cytotoxicity of the negative ion powder was evaluated. The antibacterial rate was evaluated by the plate count method, and the mechanical properties, including the gelation time, elastic recovery, compressive strain and compressive strength were characterized by standards method. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the negative ion powder. When the content of negative ion powder was 1-2%, the antibacterial rate could be up to 90-100%. It had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the alginate impression materials when the added content of negative ion powder was less than 2% (p>0.05). The results of the MTT assay indicated that the material is noncytotoxic. The optimal adding ratio of negative ion powder is 1-2%.