Tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPC) are potential targets for regenerative medicine and the treatment of tendon injuries. The frequency of such injuries increases in elderly patients while the proportion of functional TSPCs in tendon tissue decreases, protracting tendon repair. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that cell stiffness and size increase in TSPCs isolated from elderly patients (A-TSPC) compared to TSPCs from younger patients (Y-TSPC). Additionally, two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy revealed a denser, well-structured actin cytoskeleton in A-TSPC, which correlates with the augmented cell stiffness. Treating A-TSPC with ROCK-inhibitor, reverses these age-related changes, and has rejuvenating effect on cell morphology and stiffness. We assume that cellular stiffness is a suitable marker for cell aging and ROCK a potential target for therapeutic applications of cell rejuvenation. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Metallosphaera sedula is a thermoacidophilic autotrophic archaeon and known to utilize the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle (3-HP/4-HB cycle) as a carbon fixation pathway. The 3-HP/4-HB cycle in M. sedula is associated with central metabolism, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme involved in the central metabolism that converts malate to oxaloacetate. To elucidate the enzymatic properties of MDH from M. sedula (MsMDH), we determined the crystal structure of MsMDH as a complex with NAD(+) and a ternary complex with malate and NAD(+). Based on its complex structures and biochemical experiments, we observed that MsMDH can utilize both NAD(+) and NADP(+) as a cofactor. In addition, we revealed that MsMDH shows a conformational change at the active site upon substrate binding. Based on the comparison with other MDHs, we revealed that MsMDH was distinguished from general MDHs due to a Lys80 residue, and this difference is likely to influence the unique cofactor specificity of MsMDH. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Telomerase activity is regulated at the mRNA level by alternative splicing (AS) of its catalytic subunit hTERT. The aim of this study was to define the ability of splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) that pair with hTERT pre-mRNA to induce AS and inhibit telomerase activity in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. SSOs that blocked the binding of a single splicing regulatory protein, SRp20 or SRp40, to its site within intron 8 of hTERT pre-mRNA demonstrated rather moderate capacities to induce AS and inhibit telomerase. However, a SSOs that blocked the interaction of both SRp20 and SRp40 proteins with pre-mRNA was the most active. Cultivation of lymphocytes with spliced hTERT and inhibited telomerase resulted in the reduction of proliferative activity without significant induction of cell death. These results should facilitate further investigation of telomerase activity regulation, and antitelomerase SSOs could become promising agents for antiproliferative cell therapy. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Repair of DNA alkylation damage is essential for maintaining genome integrity and Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate(2OG)-dependent dioxygenase family of enzymes play crucial role in repairing some of the alkylation damages. Alkylation repair protein-B (AlkB) of Escherichia coli belongs to Fe(II)/2OG-dependent dioxygenase family and carries out DNA dealkylation repair. We report here identification of a hypothetical Mycobacterium leprae protein (accession no. ML0190) from the genomic database and show that this 615-bp open reading frame encodes a protein with sequence and structural similarity to Fe(II)/2OG-dependent dioxygenase AlkB. We identified mRNA transcript of this gene in the M. leprae infected clinical skin biopsy samples isolated from the leprosy patients. Heterologous expression of ML0190 in methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) sensitive and DNA repair deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coil resulted in resistance to alkylating agent MM. The results of the present study imply that Mycobacterium leprae ML0190 is involved in protecting the bacterial genome from DNA alkylation damage. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) is essential for the degradation of aromatic amino acids as well as for the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds in metabolites or small organic compounds. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of EaFAH, a dimeric fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from Exiguobacterium antarcticum, was determined, and its functional properties were investigated using biochemical methods. EaFAH adopts a mixed beta-sandwich roll fold with a highly flexible lid region (Val(73)-Leu(94)), and an Mg2+ ion is bound at the active site by coordinating to the three carboxylate oxygen atoms of Glu(124), Glu(126), and Asp(155). The hydrolytic activity of EaFAH toward various substrates, including linalyl acetate was investigated using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, activity staining, gel filtration, circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence, and enzyme assays. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The neurotrophin Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in the mature and developing nervous system. A point mutation (R100W) in the NGFB gene was found in patients with Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy type V (HSAN V), which leads to pain insensitivity. In a previous work it has been shown that the mutation provokes a reduced secretion of mature NGF. In this study we generated and analyzed homozygous NGF(R100W/R100W) mice to understand whether the reduced NGF bioavailability can contribute to the clinical phenotype of the homozygous condition. We found that the majority of NGF(R100W/R100W) mice were born normal but failed to reach the first month of age. This early lethality was rescued by daily treatment with wild type NGF. In addition, we found that the density of cholinergic neurons of homozygous mice was unaffected in the medial septum and in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, whereas, suprisingly, it was increased specifically in the striatum. Due to the known action of the striatal cholinergic tone in modulating pain, our findings support the hypothesis that a central mechanism, linked to the NGF(R100W)-dependent increase of the striatal cholinergic tone, can contribute to the pain insensitivity observed in HSAN V patients. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metallosphaera sedula is a thermoacidophilic archaeon that has carbon fixation ability using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate(3-HP/4-HB) cycle, and has an incomplete TCA cycle to produce necessary biosynthetic precursors. The citrate synthase from M. sedula (MsCS) is an enzyme involved in the first step of the incomplete TCA cycle, catalyzing the conversion of oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA into citrate and coenzyme A. To investigate the molecular mechanism of MsCS, we determined its crystal structure at 1.8 angstrom resolution. As other known CSs, MsCS functions as a dimer, and each monomer consists of two domains, a large domain and a small domain. We also determined the structure of the complex with acetyl-CoA and revealed the acetyl-CoA binding mode of MsCS. Structural comparison of MsCS with another CS in complex with oxaloacetate enabled us to predict the oxaloacetate binding site. Moreover, we performed inhibitory kinetic analyses of MsCS, and showed that the protein is inhibited by citrate and ATP by competitive and non-competitive inhibition modes, respectively, but not by NADH. Based on these results, we suggest that MsCS belongs to the type-I CS with structural and biochemical properties similar to those of CSs involved in the conventional TCA cycle. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitofusin1 (Mfn1) mediates outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) fusion in Opisthokonts. The uncharacterized TM comprises to two helices (namely, the TM1 and TM2) connected by an intermembrane loop. Consistent with previous studies, our results from in silico analyses show that all mitofusins lack N terminal-MTS and the TM may act an internal MTS. We have identified a conserved region in TM domain that is responsible for mitochondrial localization of Mfn1/2. Thus, our results suggest the dual function of TM; in OMM anchoring and signaling Mfn1 to mitochondria. Our study illuminates the underlying role of TM for mitochondrial localization of Mfn1 on one hand and also paves a way for the development of tools for in silico prediction of cellular localization of proteins. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is a crucial transcription factor family involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses and cell survival. The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), composed of the HOIL-1L, HOIP, and SHARPIN subunits, specifically generates Met1-linked linear ubiquitin chains through the ubiquitin ligase activity in HOIP, and activates the NF-kappa B pathway. We recently identified a chemical inhibitor of LUBAC, which we named HOIPIN-1 (HOIP inhibitor-1). To improve the potency of HOIPIN-1, we synthesized 7 derivatives (HOIPIN-2 similar to 8), and analyzed their effects on LUBAC and NF-kappa B activation. Among them, HOIPIN-8 suppressed the linear ubiquitination activity by recombinant LUBAC at an IC50 value of 11 nM, corresponding to a 255-fold increase over that of HOIPIN-1. Furthermore, as compared with HOIPIN-1, HOIPIN-8 showed 10-fold and 4-fold enhanced inhibitory activities on LUBAC- and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappa B activation respectively, without cytotoxicity. These results indicated that HOIPIN-8 is a powerful tool to explore the physiological functions of LUBAC. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atherosclerosis and cancer are the leading causes of mortality around the world that share common pathogenic pathways. The aim of this study is the investigation of the protein profile of atherosclerotic plaque in order to find similar biomarker between cancer and atherosclerosis. The small pieces of human coronary artery containing advanced atherosclerotic plaque is obtained from patients during bypass surgery. Structural characterization of type V plaque, including fibrous connective tissue, necrotic lipid core, cholesterol clefts and calcium deposits are performed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The protein profile of atherosclerosis plaque is also analyzed using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). TEM analysis shows that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit different and uncommon morphologies in atherosclerotic plaque which is correlated to the proliferative state of the cells. The proteomics analysis reveals proteins related to atherosclerosis formation including Mimecan, Ras Suppressor Protein-1 (RSUP-1) and Cathepsin D which identified as biomarker of cancerous tumors. The expression of Mimecan and RSUP-1 is down-regulated in atherosclerotic plaque while the expression of Cathepsin D is up regulated. These data support that atherosclerotic plaque presents some degree of tumorgenesis with the significant activity of VSMCs as the key player in atherogenesis. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisplatin causes acute kidney injury (AKI) through proximal tubular injury. We investigated the protective effect of the adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) against cisplatin-induced AKI. We investigated whether the AMP-kinase activator AICAR ameliorates cisplatin-induced AKI through the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, AICAR, cisplatin, and cisplatin + AICAR. As appropriate to their treatment group, the rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg, i.p.). AICAR was administered to the rats at 100 mg/kg i.p. daily. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine were measured. Renal damage was analyzed in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Renal tissues were also examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot for p-AMPK, Kim-1, cleaved caspase 3, and JAK/STAT/SOCS. For in vitro studies, NRK-52E normal rat kidney cells were treated with cisplatin and/or AICAR. By western blot, we confirmed the expression of p-AMPK and the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway in NRK-52E cells. AICAR was protective against cisplatin-induced acute tubular injury by up-regulating p-AMPK expression in NRK-52E cells. Protein expression levels of JAK2/STAT1 were markedly ameliorated in NRK-52E cells by AICAR. The protective mechanism of AICAR may be associated with suppression of the JAK2/STAT1 pathway and up-regulation of SOCS1, an inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT1 pathway. The present study demonstrates the protective effects of AICAR against cisplatin-induced AKI and shows a new renoprotective mechanism through the JAK2/STAT1/SOCS1 pathway and apoptosis inhibition. This study suggests that activation of the AMPK activator AICAR might ameliorate cisplatin-induced AKI. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adult hippocampal neural (HCN) stem cells promptly undergo irreversible autophagic cell death (ACD) if deprived of insulin in culture. Small, non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in regulating biological processes, including proliferation and cell death. However, there have been no reports thus far regarding miRNA involvement in the induction of adult HCN stem cell death under insulin deprived conditions, for which we performed a microarray-based analysis to examine the expression signature of miRNAs in adult rat HCN stem cells. Three independent specimens per culture condition either with or without insulin were prepared and a miRNA microarray analysis carried out. A total of 12 exhibited significantly altered expression levels upon cell death due to the absence of insulin when compared to HCN stem cells cultured with insulin present (cut-off limit; p < 0.05 and fold-change >1.3) The resulting volcano plot showed that, among these miRNAs, seven were upregulated and five were downregulated. The upregulated miRNAs were capable of modulating HCN stem cell death. Caspase-3 activity analysis, LC3 conversion, and TEM of autophagosome formation consistently suggested that ACD, not apoptosis, was most likely the mechanism affecting HCN cell death. As such, we have come to term these miRNAs, "HCN stem cell-specific autophagic cell death regulators." Taken together, our data suggest that the miRNA expression profile of HCN stem cells is altered during ACD occurring due to insulin deprivation and that differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in HCN stem cell viability. Detailed explorations of the underlying mechanisms regarding HCN stem cell viability modulation by these miRNAs would be beneficial in further understanding the physiological features of adult HCN stem cells and are currently being investigated. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macrophages are classified mainly into two subtypes, M1 and M2, which exhibit distinct phenotypes, based on their microenvironment. Although recent studies have suggested that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are associated with M1/M2 macrophage polarization, available information on GPCR-mediated macrophage polarization is still limited. In the present study, we identified Gpr137b as an orphan GPCR abundantly expressed in RAW264, a mouse macrophage cell line, and illuminated its role in M2 macrophage polarization. We generated Gpr137b-knockout (Gpr137b-KO) clones of RAW264 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Two independent Gpr137b-KO clones were isolated, which were demonstrated to have frameshifting 188-nucleotide deletions at a region containing the ATG start codon of Gpr137b. Consistently, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the deleted region is not transcribed. We then treated the Gpr137b-KO and wildtype RAW264 cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) to induce M2 macrophage polarization. Microarray analysis revealed that the IL-4-induced gene expression of representative M2 macrophage markers was significantly reduced in the Gpr137b-KO cells, and this was validated by qRT-PCR analysis. By contrast, M1 macrophage marker gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide was unaffected by Gprl37b-KO. Collectively, the current study shows that Gpr137b is a possible regulator of M2 macrophage polarization. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are quiescent cells in the bone marrow niche and are relatively dependent on glycolytic ATP production. On the other hand, differentiated cells, including hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), preferentially generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is unclear how cellular differentiation and the cell cycle status affect nutritional requirements and ATP production in HSCs and HPCs. Using a newly developed culture system, we demonstrated that survival of HPCs was strongly dependent on glucose, whereas quiescent HSCs survived for a certain duration without glucose. Among HPCs, granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs) were particularly dependent on glucose during proliferation. By monitoring the ATP concentration in live cells, we demonstrated that the ATP level was maintained for a short duration without glucose in HSCs, possibly due to their metabolic flexibility. In addition, HSCs exhibited low ATP turnover, whereas HPCs including GMPs demonstrated high ATP turnover and required efficient ATP production from glucose. These findings show that ATP turnover and nutritional requirements differ between HSCs and HPCs according to the cell cycle and differentiation status. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recently, light emitting diode (LED) irradiation has been introduced as a new strategy to enhance proliferation and affect differentiation of stem cells. Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal (hWJM) cells have unique characteristics that make them an appropriate source of stem cells for use in basic and clinical applications. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of polarized (PL) and non-polarized (NPL) red light irradiation on gametogenic differentiation of hWJM cells in the presence or absence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and retinoic acid (RA). Exposure of hWJM cells to PL and NPL red LED (625 nm, 1.9 J/cm(2)) with or without BMP4+RA pre-treatment effectively differentiated them into germ lineage when the gene expression pattern (Fragilis, DAZL, VASA, SCP3 and Acrosin) and protein synthesis (anti-DAZL, anti-VASA, anti-SCP3 and anti-Acrosin antibodies) of the induced cells was evaluated. These data demonstrated that photobiomodulation may be applied for gametogenic differentiation in-vitro. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.