BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that predicted fat mass and lean body mass may act differently on adverse events. However, the cardiovascular prognostic value of lean body mass and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not yet been investigated. We sought to investigate the relation between predicted lean body mass or fat mass and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with T2DM. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study to investigate the relation between the predicted lean body mass or fat mass and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM. We used sex-specific quartiles of predicted lean body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and fat mass index (kg/m(2)). We defined a major adverse cardiovascular event as a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 8.8 years, we found that a major cardiovascular event occurred in 1801 of 10 251 patients (17.8%). Predicted lean BMI was not associated with major cardiovascular events (p = 0.34). Compared with patients in the first quartile (incidence rate 16.4%; 17.2%, 17.5% and 19.8% for the second, third and four quartiles, respectively) of predicted fat mass index, those in the fourth quartile had a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.91). INTERPRETATION: In patients with T2DM, we found that predicted fat mass had a strong positive association with a higher risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event. Increasing lean body mass did not have a protective role.
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a family of pain-related disorders associated with impaired function in the jaw, temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication. Our objectives were to evaluate the association between chronic TMD and gastresophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to determine whether mental disorders or undermined sleep mediates this association. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study involving 1522 consecutive adult patients with chronic TMD and 1522 matched controls from 2 hospitals in China. All participants were aged between 18 and 70 years and were recruited from July 2017 to April 2018 Chronic TMD was diagnosed by trained dentists using the criteria in the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment Study. Trained gastroenterologists made blinded diagnoses of GERD according to the Montreal definition and classification (at least 2 d of mild symptoms, or 1 d of moderate or severe symptoms per week). We used validated questionnaires to evaluate psychological status and sleep quality. RESULTS: Of the study participants, we identified 132 patients and 61 controls with GERD. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, we identified GERD as a risk factor for TMD (odds ratio 2.74, 95% confidence interval 1.88 to 3.98). Mediation analyses identified that somatization, anxiety and undermined sleep moderately mediated the relation between TMD and GERD. INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that symptomatic GERD is associated with chronic, painful TMD, and somatization, anxiety and undermined sleep mediate this association to a certain extent. Due consideration should be given to the evaluation and management of gastrointestinal symptoms and mental disorders in the combined therapy for painful TMD.
BACKGROUND: Perioperative corticosteroid use may reduce acute kidney injury. We sought to test whether methylprednisolone reduces the risk of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified substudy of a randomized controlled trial involving patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (2007-2014); patients were recruited from 79 centres in 18 countries. Eligibility criteria included a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death based on a preoperative score of 6 or greater on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation I. Patients (n = 7286) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous methylprednisolone (250 mg at anesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients, caregivers, data collectors and outcome adjudicators were unaware of the assigned intervention. The primary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration (from the preoperative value) of 0.3 mg/dL or greater (>= 26.5 mu mol/L) or 50% or greater in the 14-day period after surgery, or use of dialysis within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 1479/3647 patients (40.6%) in the methylprednisolone group and in 1426/3639 patients (39.2%) in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.11). Results were consistent across several definitions of acute kidney injury and in patients with preoperative chronic kidney disease. INTERPRETATION: Intraoperative corticosteroid use did not reduce the risk of acute kidney injury in patients with a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death who had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results do not support the prophylactic use of steroids during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
BACKGROUND: Although the association of moderate alcohol consumption with specific disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and cancers, has been well documented, the evidence of the broader impact of alcohol consumption on health-related quality of life is less clear. Our objective was to examine the association of drinking patterns with changes in physical and mental well-being across populations. METHODS: We conducted a multilevel analysis with multivariate responses in the population-representative FAMILY Cohort in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, to examine the association between alcohol drinking patterns across 2 waves (2009-2013) (i.e., quitters, initiators, persistent drinkers, persistent former drinkers and lifetime abstainers) and changes in physical and mental well-being (Physical and Mental Component Summary of the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]). Analyses were stratified by sex. We validated findings using a nationally representative cohort in the United States, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2005). RESULTS: In the FAMILY Cohort (n = 10 386; median follow-up 2.3 yr), the change in mental well-being was more favourable in female quitters than in lifetime abstainers (beta = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43 to 2.45; mean score change of +2.0 for quitters and +0.02 for lifetime abstainers). This association was validated in the NESARC (n = 31 079; median follow-up 3.1 yr) (beta = 0.83, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.58; mean score change of -1.1 for quitters and -1.6 for lifetime abstainers). INTERPRETATION: The change in mental well-being was more favourable in female quitters, approaching the level of mental well-being of lifetime abstainers within 4 years of quitting in both Chinese and American populations.
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a severe neurologic complication of dengue fever, described in only a few case reports. The incidence and risk factors for stroke in patients with dengue remain unclear. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the risk of stroke in patients with dengue. METHODS: Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we included a total of 13 787 patients with dengue newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. The control cohort consisted of patients who did not have dengue, matched 1:1 by demographic characteristics and stroke-related comorbidities. We calculated the cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in both cohorts using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of stroke was 5.33 per 1000 person-years in the dengue cohort and 3.72 per 1000 person-years in the control cohort, with an adjusted HR of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.32). The risk of stroke among patients with dengue was highest in the first 2 months after diagnosis (25.53 per 1000 person-years, adjusted HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.48-4.18). INTERPRETATION: Dengue fever was associated with an increased risk of stroke in the first few months after diagnosis. The effect of dengue on stroke may be acute rather than chronic.