A method for simultaneously determining indaziflam and its five metabolites in soil, water, and fruits using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was established. The analytes were eluted in <4.5 min. Positive electrospray ionization mode was used. The analytes were extracted using acetonitrile containing 1% ammonium hydroxide, and then the extracts were purified using octadecylsilane and PRiME HLB cartridges. The quantification limits were 0.01-1.01 mu g kg(-1). The linearities of the calibrations for all analytes were excellent (R-2 > 0.9952). The recoveries at spike concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg kg(-1) were 81.3-112.1%. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations were <13.5% and <12.3%, respectively. The method was successfully used to determine indaziflam and its five metabolites in samples from markets and fields. The results confirmed that the method is an effective and robust procedure for routinely determining indaziflam and its metabolites in soil, water, and fruit samples.
Circadian rhythm helps organisms adapt to their environment and control a variety of physiological and metabolic processes. Acrylamide is a toxic compound that can be produced during food processing. The aim of this research is to investigate whether the circadian clock is involved in the toxicity mechanisms of acrylamide in mice liver. Our results revealed that acrylamide markedly induced circadian gene oscillation disorder and blocked circadian-related protein in mice liver and HepG2 cells. Simultaneously, the balance of the daily oscillation of the antioxidant enzymes was impeded under acrylamide treatment. Furthermore, acrylamide treatment elevated the mitochondrial dynamic gene expressions and influenced the mitochondrial morphology at the night phase. Acrylamide blocked circadian protein expression via repressing the phosphorylation of AKT or inducing oxidative stress. Taken together, our work reveals acrylamide as a clock-repressing compound generated through the Maillard browning reaction in certain foods that may possess a toxic effect via circadian clock mechanisms.
The unique flavor of Beijing Youji (BJY) chicken broth compared with that of commercial broilers (CB) was investigated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with AEDA/GC-O (aroma extract dilution analysis of gas chromatography olfactometry), quantitation, and aroma recombination. A total of 71 odorants with almost the same major odorants (>= 10 ng/g broth) were found by GC-O in both BJY and CB broths. However, BJY broth had thirty-two more extra odorants than CB broth, indicating the rich fragrance of the former. Aroma recombination and omission experiments demonstrated that 21 versus 17 odorants (with OAV >= 1) contributed significantly to BJY and CB broth aromas, respectively. Those key odorants mainly included sulfur-containing compounds and aliphatic aldehydes, such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, etc. Furthermore, composition analysis of the meat suggested that the better flavor, with rather more odorants, of BJY broth is probably due to higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids and water-soluble flavor precursor, including ribose, cysteine, thiamine, etc., present in the BJY meat.
The effects of wheat-gluten hydrolysates (WGH) and their ultrafiltration fractions on multiple-stress tolerance and ethanol production in yeast during very-high-gravity (VHG) fermentation were examined. The results showed that WGH and WHG-ultrafiltration-fraction supplementations could significantly enhance the growth and viability of yeast and further improve the tolerance of yeast to osmotic stress and ethanol stress. The addition of MW < 1 kDa fractions led to 51.08 and 21.70% enhancements in cell-membrane integrity, 30.74 and 10.43% decreases in intracellular ROS accumulation, and 34.18 and 26.16% increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) in yeast under osmotic stress and ethanol stress, respectively. Moreover, WGH and WHG-ultrafiltration-fraction supplementations also improved the growth and ethanol production of yeast during VHG fermentation, and supplementation with the <1 kDa fraction resulted in a maximum biomass of 16.47 g/L dry cell and an ethanol content of 18.50% (v/v) after VHG fermentation.
Agricultural lignocellulose biomass generally contains certain amounts of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) such as glucose, fructose, or sucrose. These sugars are generally degraded in pretreatment at high temperature or discharged with wastewater in a detoxification process. This study proposed an approach of utilizing frequently ignored water-soluble carbohydrates for promotion of cellulosic L-lactic acid production. A simple solid state fermentation was performed during a corn stover storage period to convert the sugars into L-lactic acid and then a dry biorefining technology was applied to convert cellulose and hemicellulose fractions into the same L-lactic acid product. The 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation in pretreatment was significantly reduced and the consequent biodetoxification time was shortened. L-Lactic acid production was increased from 130.2 g/L to 139.0 g/L, and the minimum L-lactic acid selling price was reduced by 5.9%. This study provided an important option of biorefinery processing technology for production of value added biochemicals.
Two marine microalgae, Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis zhangjiangensis, treated for 9 days with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), were subjected to 3 days of ultraviolet light band A at 365 nm (UVA365) followed by a 3 day post-UVA PAR treatment. Compared with the control that only had PAR treatment, UVA365 treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the amounts of total xanthophylls in N. closterium and I. zhangjiangensis by up to 3.53- and 1.23-fold, respectively, after 3 days of UVA365 irradiation. In particular, UVA365 treatment markedly (p < 0.05) increased two major bioactive xanthophyll pigments, fucoxanthin in N. closterium and diadinoxanthin in I. zhangjiangensis, by up to 1.97- and 1.52-fold, respectively. UVA365 treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the accumulation of another bioactive microalgal metabolite, total mycosporine-like amino acids, in N. closterium and I. zhangjiangensis by up to 1.40- and 1.30-fold, respectively. UVA365 irradiation has potential as an efficient approach for enhancing the production of valuable microalgal metabolites.
Eriodictyol, a natural flavonoid mainly distributed in citrus fruits and peanut, has been well-documented with possession of excellent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer bioactivities. This work focus on the protective effects of eriodictyol on LPS-induced neuroinflammation, amyloidogenesis, cognitive impairment, and the potential mechanisms involved. Behavioral tests and histological examinations showed that eriodictyol significantly prevented the memory and neuronal damage triggered by LPS. Consistently, eriodictyol (100 mg/kg) reduced the formation of A beta(1-42) by 28.37 +/- 16.71 pg/mL compared to the LPS group. In addition, high dose eriodictyol (100 mg/kg) also equilibrated the cholinergic system via suppressing AChE activity (0.1996 +/- 0.0831 U/mgprot) and elevating ChAT activity (41.81 +/- 24.72 U/g) as well as ACh level (5.093 +/- 3.531 mu g/mgprot) compared to the LPS group. Western blot results indicated that compared to the LPS group, eriodictyol suppressed LPS-induced filial overactivation (84.29% +/- 27.21%) and regulated inflammatory mediators and cytokines by inhibiting the NE-kappa B and MAPK pathways. These results indicated that eriodictyol alleviated amyloidogenesis and memory impairment triggered by LPS via inhibiting TLR4, MAPKs, and PI3K/Akt, and activating Sirt1 pathways and thus blocking downstream translocation of NF-kappa B, which offers a potential nutritional preventive strategy for neuroinflammation diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxification enzymes involved in the development of metabolic resistance in Plutella xylostella. Uncovering the interactions between representative PxGSTs and the inhibitor S-hexyl glutathione (GTX), helps in the development of effective PxGST inhibitors for resistance management. As the PxGST most severely inhibited by GTX, PxGST sigma (sigma-class PxGST) adopts the canonical fold of insect GSTs. The formation of the PxGST sigma-GTX complex is mainly driven by H-bond and hydrophobic interactions derived from the side chains of favorable residues. Of the residues composing the active site of PxGST sigma, Lys43 and Arg99 are two hot spots, first reported in the binding of GSH derivatives to GSTs. Such differences indicate the metabolism discrimination of different insect GSTs. Unfavorable interactions between the PxGST sigma active site and GTX are depicted as well. The research guides the discovery and optimization of PxGST sigma inhibitors.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the supernatant of the biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens W1 led to the isolation of eight acaricidal cyclodipeptides from the active fractions by column chromatography separation and HPLC purification. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified as cyclo-(Gly-L-Phe), 2, cyclo-(L-Phe-trans-4-OH-L-Pro), 3, cyclo-(Gly-L-Tyr), 4, cyclo-(L-Ala-L-Pro), 5, cyclo-(L-Pro-trans-4-OH-L-Pro), 6, cyclo-(Gly-L-Pro), 7, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Pro), 8, and cyclo-(L-Tyr-trans-4-OH-L-Pro), 9. Those cyclodipeptides displayed significant acaricidal activities with LC50 values of 13.85-98.24 mu M. Cyclo-(L-Tyr-trans-4-OH-L-Pro) (LC50 13.85 mu M) was five times more effective than the positive control abamectin (LC50 72.06 mu M). The results indicated that the hydroxyl group is an important component. This is the first report on the acaricidal capabilities of cyclodipeptides against Tetranychus urticae. The results revealed that the acaricidal activity of the biocontrol strain B. amyloliquefaciens W1 was dependent on its constituent cyclodipeptides, which have the potential to be safe and environmentally friendly acaricides.
It is well-known that high-nitrogen content inhibits cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis in heterotrophic microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii. In this study, two nitrogen feeding strategies, pulse-feeding and continuous feeding, were evaluated to alleviate high-nitrogen inhibition effects on C. cohnii. The results showed that continuous-feeding with a medium solution containing 50% (w/v) yeast extract at 2.1 mL/h during 12-96 h was the optimal nitrogen feeding strategy for the fermentation process, when glucose concentration was maintained at 15-27 g/L during the same period. With the optimized strategy, 71.2 g/L of dry cell weight and DHA productivity of 57.1 mg/L/h were achieved. In addition, metabolomic analysis was applied to determine the metabolic changes during different nitrogen feeding conditions, and the changes in amino acids, polysaccharides, purines, and pentose phosphate pathway were observed, providing valuable metabolite level information for exploring the mechanism of the high-nitrogen inhibition effect and further improving DHA productivity in C. cohnii.
The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) related to ethylene response in banana fruits remain unknown because many miRNAs are differentially expressed as the fruit ripens, making the identification of ethylene-responsive miRNAs difficult. Using newly harvested banana fruits (within 5 h after harvest) as material, we found that these fruit did not ripen when treated with 5 mu L/L of ethylene for 12 h at 22 degrees C. Two miRNA libraries were generated from newly harvested banana fruits with and without ethylene treatment and sequenced. In total, 128 known miRNAs belonging to 42 miRNA families were obtained, and 12 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 22 were differentially expressed in response to ethylene treatment, among which 6 known miRNAs and their putative targets were validated using qRT-PCR These putative targets encoded proteins including GATA, ARF, DLC, and AGO, etc. KEGG and GO analyses showed that miRNAs differentially expressed in response to ethylene mainly function in the molecular and biological processes.
The aim of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of walnut protein hydrolysates (WPH) against memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation (SD) in rat and further to identify and characterize the potent neuroprotective peptides against glutamate-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Results showed that a remarkable amelioration effect on behavioral performance in Morris water maze test was observed for WPH and its low molecular weight fraction WPHL, especially for WPHL. Additionally, a reduction of antioxidant defense (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and an increase of malondialdehyde content induced by SD were normalized in brain of rat after oral administration of WPH and WPHL. Then three neuroprotective peptides including GGW, VYY, and LLPF were identified from WPHL, which could protect PC12 cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis with relative cell viability of 78.29 +/- 3.09%, 80.65 +/- 1.74%, and 83.97 +/- 3.06%, respectively, versus glutamate group 48.61 +/- 3.99%. The possible mechanism underlying their protective effects of GGW and VYY could be related to their strong radical scavenging activity as well as their ability to reduce reactive oxygen species production and the depletion of SOD and GSH-px in PC12 cells. Notably, the marked neuroprotective effects of LLPF, which did not show obvious free-radical scavenging activity in vitro, could be attributed to its strong effects on inhibiting Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. Additionally, all these peptides could regulate the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bax and Bcl-2). Therefore, walnut peptides might be regarded as the potential nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative disorders associated with memory deficits.
Spiral dextrin subfraction (SD-40) obtained through enzyme debranching and gradient ethanol precipitation could interact with vitamin E (VE) or soy isoflavone (SIO) to form V-type inclusion complexes. The formation of two inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to investigate the breakdown of inclusion complexes and release behavior of bioactive compounds. The results indicated that the two inclusion complexes exhibited a controlled and sustained release behavior during digestion. In addition, the SD-40/VE inclusion complex presented higher stability and stronger antioxidant capacity than the SD-40/SIO inclusion complex. Furthermore, the first and zero order models were applied to understand the release kinetics of VE and SIO from inclusion complexes in the stomach, whereas the first order model was chosen to describe the release of VE and SIO from inclusion complexes in the intestine.
In this work, male rats were exposed to multiple phthalate esters (MIXPs) in a long-term low-dose model for the early evaluation of reproductive toxicity. An ananlysis method with better sensitivity, accuracy and precision was established to determine the five sex hormones (androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone) in collected urine samples. The results showed that all the analytes in the MIXPs treated group changed in a time-dependent manner. Specifically, estrone significantly decreased from the 30th day and the other four changed from the 30th day and then significantly increased on the 60th day, while no obvious changes were found in the control group. Therefore, a possible way was provided for the early evaluation of male reproductive toxicity induced by Phthalate esters (PEs). The reliability of judgment was improved by observing the changes of five target hormones simultaneously. Furthermore, good compliance was predicted for the practical application due to the noninvasive and convenient urine sample collection.
To assess the safety of transgenic Bt rice, we evaluated the chronic effects of Bt rice carrying the Cry1Ab protein (1.64 mg/kg) on the gut microbiota and histopathology in highly inbred Wuzhishan pigs (WZSP) in a two-generation feeding study. The WZSP of the f0 (n = 26) and f1 (n = 27) generations were divided into GM and Non-GM groups and fed for 360 and 420 days with Bt and isogenic parent-line rice, respectively. The high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing results revealed that the relative abundance of the family Enterobacteriaceae and genus Escherichia were significantly different between f1F and f1Z. The level of the genera CF231 and SMB53 in the f0Z group was higher than that in the f0F group. In addition, no abnormal histopathology changes in the main gastrointestinal tissues were found after feeding with Bt rice. In conclusion, Bt rice consumption has no adverse effects on the gut microbiota or organ function of WZSP.