Purpose: Limbal ischemia is an important prognostic factor in the management of ocular burns. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of clinically assessing limbal ischemia among ophthalmic professionals. Methods: This study included 111 ophthalmic professionals who were shown 12 diffuse illumination color slit-lamp photographs of eyes with recent chemical injuries. Respondents were asked whether the photos were assessable and if yes, then to indicate the presence, location, and grade of limbal ischemia in each case. The responses were collected using a standard data collection sheet and the inter-observer agreement was calculated. Results: All participants responded to every question. Of the 1,332 responses, images were deemed assessable in 1,222 (91.7%) instances. The overall agreement (Fleiss' kappa) for the presence of limbal ischemia and severity of limbal ischemia was 0.106 and 0.139, respectively (P < 0.012). Among the four groups of observers, practicing cornea specialists displayed significantly (P < 0.003) higher kappa values (0.201-0.203) when compared to residents (0.131-0.185), fellows (0.086-0.127), and optometrists (0.077-0.102). All indicated a poor level of inter-rater consistency. Conclusion: The results indicate that clinical assessment of limbal ischemia is highly subjective and there is lack of reliability even among cornea specialists who regularly manage patients with ocular burns. A non-invasive, standardized, objective, accurate, and reliable modality for ocular surface angiography is desperately needed for proper assessment and prognostication of ocular burns.
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of heads-up three-dimensional (3D) vision system for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation surgery. Methods: In this prospective, randomized controlled study, 20 eyes with age-related cataract received phacoemulsification and IOL implantation and were randomly divided into "heads-up" 3D vision group and conventional surgery group. Ocular and surgical parameters such as surgery time, pre and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and corneal endothelial cells density were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The result showed significant postoperative improvement of BCVA in both groups. There was no difference in either mean surgery time or postoperative mean endothelial cell density between the 3D group and the conventional group. No major complication occurred during surgery in either group. Conclusion: The heads-up 3D vision system is suitable and safe for cataract phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. This technique can be of widespread use.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of cyclophotocoagulation with an illuminated laser probe under a noncontact wide-angle retinoscope in treating refractory glaucoma. Methods: Eleven patients (11 eyes) with refractory neovascular glaucoma were treated with ciliary body photocoagulation. Preoperative and postoperative corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), ophthalmofundoscopy, B-ultrasound and ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed. Results: Preoperative IOP ranged from 45 to 58 mmHg (mean 51.9 mmHg). At postoperative 1, 3, and 6 months, the IOPs ranged between 16 and 33 mmHg (mean 27.1 mmHg), 14-28 mmHg (mean 20.6 mmHg), and 14-28 mmHg (mean 18.5 mmHg), respectively. IOP at the last follow-up (range 7-12 months) was 15-24 mmHg (mean 18.8 mmHg). An average of 63.8% decrease in postoperative IOP was found in these patients with no associated complications. The postoperative fibrotic exudate, anterior chamber hyphema, and exudative choroidal detachment were all well-managed and resolved. No patients experienced intraocular lens deviation or dislocation, hypotonia oculi, atrophy of eyeball, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, or sympathetic ophthalmia. Conclusion: Cyclophotocoagulation with an illuminated laser probe under a noncontact wide-angle retinoscope is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma.
Purpose: Our study was conducted to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the refractive prediction determined by the calculation formulas for different intraocular lens (IOL) powers for high myopia. Methods: This study reviewed 217 eyes from 135 patients who had received cataract aspiration treatment and IOL implantation. The refractive mean numerical error (MNE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the IOL power calculation formulas (SRK/T, Haigis, Holladay, Hoffer Q and Barrett Universal II) were examined and compared. The MNE and MAE at different axial lengths (AL) were compared, and the percentage of every refractive error absolute value for each formula was calculated at +/- 0.25D, +/- 0.50D, +/- 1.00D, and +/- 2.00D. Results: In all, 98 patients were recruited into this study and 98 eyes of them were analyzed. We found that Barrett Universal II formula had the lowest MNE and MAE, SRK/T and Haigis formulas arrived at similar MNE and MAE, and the MNE and MAE calculated by Holladay and Hoffer Q formula were the highest. Barrett Universal II formulas have the lowest MAE among different AL patients, whereas it reached the highest percentage of refractive error absolute value within 0.5D in this study. The MAE of each formula is positively correlated with AL. Conclusion: Barrett Universal II formula rendered the lowest predictive error compared with SRK/T, Haigis, Holladay, and Hoffer Q formulas. Thus, Barrett Universal II formula may be regarded as a more reliable formula for high myopia.
Purpose: To investigate the quality of discharge teaching, readiness for hospital discharge (RHD), and post-discharge outcomes (PDO) of cataract patients in a day ward and to explore the relationships among these three variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study used an opportunistic sample from the ophthalmic day ward in a general hospital in Sichuan province, China. Data were collected using four questionnaires. Results: The total average score on the Quality of Discharge Teaching Scale was 192.95, and the dimension with the lowest score was "guidance obtained practically." The total average score on the Readiness for Hospital Discharge Scale was 175.51, and the dimension with the lowest score was "knowledge of disease." The total average score on the Post-Discharge Outcome Questionnaire was 77.08, and the four dimensions with the lowest scores were "compliance behaviors," "avoiding excessive use of eye," "avoiding strenuous exercise," and "regular check-up." Pearson correlation coefficients indicated low to moderate correlations between discharge teaching quality and PDO (0.245, P < 0.01), RHD and PDO (0.271, P < 0.01), and discharge teaching quality and PDO (0.559, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The quality of discharge teaching among cataract patients who underwent day surgery was relatively high, and patient preparation for discharge and PDO were good. However, medical staff should focus more attention on patients' individualized needs for discharge teaching while emphasizing the importance of compliance behavior.
Purpose: To evaluate the optical quality and tear-film dynamics in patients with aqueous-deficient or evaporative subtype of dry eye disease (DED). Methods: Twenty-five aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) patients, 25 DED patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 25 healthy subjects were included in this study. Vision-related health-targeted quality of life was evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. Dynamic recording with a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System [OQAS]) was performed in right eyes. Scattered light was measured as the objective scatter index (OSI) at 0.5-second intervals over 20 seconds without blinking. Then, we recorded OSI every 0.5 seconds within a 20-second period with the subjects asked to blink freely. Several parameters were established to evaluate the dynamic alterations of optical quality and the effects of blinks: OSI, OSI standard deviation (SD), Delta OSI, Delta OSI/time, blinking change (BC), and blinking frequency (BF). Additional clinical examination included tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), fluorescein staining grade (FL), meibomian gland quality, meibomian gland expressibility, and meibomian gland drop-out. Results: The OSI, SD, Delta OSI, Delta OSI/time, BC, and BF were significantly higher in DED patients than controls (P < 0.01, respectively). The OSI, SD, Delta OSI, Delta OSI/time, BC, and BF were significantly higher in patients with MGD than patients with ADDE (P < 0.01). In the MGD group, BUT, FL staining score, lid abnormality, meibomian gland expressibility, and meibomian gland drop-out were correlated with Delta OSI and Delta OSI/time. Conclusion: Dry eye patients with MGD had significant alterations of optical quality compared with ADDE patients. The double-pass system has potential to be a useful quantitative method to evaluate the optical quality and tear-film dynamics in patients with dry eye.
We report a case of non-familial, sporadic fetal retinoblastoma (RB) that was accidently detected at 39 weeks of gestation on pre-natal ultrasonography in left eye (OS). Post-natal examination revealed Group A and, Group D RB in right eye (OD) and OS, respectively. At 35 days, selective ophthalmic artery intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) was performed in OS and laser for OD. Pre-natal ultrasound and its application in RB are limited to those cases with a strong genetic predisposition. Our case was accidently detected at late gestation with no familial or genetic predisposition. In addition, this was the youngest reported case that received IAC on literature review.
Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of retrobulbar ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine compared with systemic fentanyl in pediatric vitreoretinal (VR) surgery. Methods: This prospective double-blind, randomized controlled study was performed in 60 children undergoing VR surgery, age from 2 to 7 years. After general anesthesia, the following procedure was administrated: (1) retrobulbar block with 0.5% ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine 1 mu g/kg (group RD, n = 20), (2) retrobulbar block with 0.5% ropivacaine (group RB, n = 20), and (3) control group with general anesthesia only (group F, n = 20). Hemodynamics, postoperative pain scores, anesthetics consumption (remifentanil, propofol, fentanyl), and emergence agitation were recorded. Results: Respiratory depression was observed in 7 of the 20 patients in group F after the laryngeal mask airway was removed in the operating room, compared with none in groups RD and RB. All patients in group F required intraoperative rescue fentanyl (average intraoperative fentanyl consumption, 26.6 +/- 12.6 mu g per patient). Some rescue fentanyl was required in group RB (three patients required one dose of rescue fentanyl). Patients in group RD required none. Groups RD and RB reported lower pain scores than group F at 4 h postoperatively (RD group: P < 0.001; RB group: P = 0.002); pain scores in group RD were lower than that in group F at 6 h postoperatively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Retrobulbar dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine is a safe and effective alternative to systemic fentanyl. This regimen provides better pain management, hemodynamic stability, and stress response suppression in pediatric VR surgery.
Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC), also known as superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy or chemosurgery, is currently widely accepted as one of the primary treatment modalities for intraocular retinoblastoma worldwide. Following the introduction of the technique in 1998, IAC has evolved over the past decades to be safer and more effective. Accumulated evidence shows that IAC is more effective in providing eye salvage in group D and E retinoblastoma as compared to conventional systemic intravenous chemotherapy (IVC). In contrast to IVC, IAC has the added benefits of reduced overall treatment duration and minimal systemic toxicity. This review provides a comprehensive update on the history, technique, indications, contraindications, and outcome of IAC. We have also identified the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the technique in this review.
Purpose: To compare the density of iris collagen and anterior segment parameters in eyes with chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (CPACG) and their fellow eyes with confirmed or suspected primary angle closure (PAC/PACS). Methods: Nineteen patients with CPACG in one eye and PAC/PACS in the fellow eye requiring trabeculectomy in the CPACG eye and iridectomy in the fellow eye were recruited. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) measurements were conducted under light and dark conditions. Iris specimens, obtained by iridectomy/trabeculectomy, were analyzed by sirius red polarization for quantifying type I/III collagen density. AS-OCT parameters and type I/III collagen densities were compared between the two eyes. Results: The iris curvatures were flatter in CPACG eyes in light and dark conditions (P < 0.05). The iris areas in light condition and iris thicknesses in dark condition were smaller in CPACG eyes (P < 0.05). The density of collagen type I in CPACG eyes was lower (P = 0.048). The light-to-dark changes in CPACG eyes and PAC/PACS eyes, respectively, were -0.679 +/- 0.701 and -1.627 +/- 0.802 mm for pupil diameters, and 0.069 +/- 0.113 and 0.258 +/- 0.157 mm(2) for iris areas, which differed significantly (P < 0.001). With the decrease of type I collagen, anterior chamber width increased and iris areas decreased in dark condition. Conclusion: Dynamic changes in pupil diameter and iris areas differed significantly between CPACG eyes and their fellow PAC/PACS eyes. Decreased type I collagen density in iris tissue was associated with decreased iris area and increased anterior chamber width, which may contribute to disease progression.
Purpose: This study evaluated bimanual intracapsular irrigation-aspiration for ectopia lentis with use of a small incision for 4-point scleral fixation of a foldable posterior-chamber intraocular lens (IOL) and anterior vitrectomy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 18 eyes from 10 patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent surgical intervention for ectopia lentis at our clinic between July 2012 and September 2018. In this study, intraoperative and postoperative complications, uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent, intraocular pressure, and endothelial cell density were evaluated. Results: No intraoperative complications were reported. In all cases, early postoperative evaluation revealed a clear cornea, round pupil, and well-centered IOL. Mean logMAR uncorrected visual acuity improved from 1.09 preoperatively to 0.56 postoperatively (P < 0.05). Mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.45 preoperatively to 0.17 postoperatively (P < 0.05). Aside from transient ocular hypertension, no postoperative complications were reported. Conclusion: The combined surgical technique presented above yields excellent visual outcomes with an extremely low incidence of complications. This approach is simple, safe, and effective in the treatment of ectopia lentis in patients with Marfan syndrome.