Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive alkaloid compound extracted from a Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. It is a multitarget antitumor natural substance. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the antitumor effects of SIN, such as direct cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, sensitization attenuating radiotherapy and chemotherapy, reversal of drug resistance, resistance to distant metastasis, and anti-angiogenesis. SIN can be used as a tumor cell killer and an adjuvant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, recent studies are mostly limited to the basic experimental stage; no systematic clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, this paper aimed to review the mechanism underlying the antitumor effects of SIN by consulting relevant domestic and foreign studies and to provide a relevant reference for further development, use, and exploration of SIN.
Objective: To analyze the composition rules of oral prescriptions in the treatment of headache, stomachache and dysmenorrhea recorded in National Standard for Chinese Patent Drugs (NSCPD) enacted by Ministry of Public Health of China and then make comparison between them to better understand pain treatment in different regions of human body. Methods: Constructed NSCPD database had been constructed in 2014. Prescriptions treating the three pain-related diseases were searched and screened from the database. Then data mining method such as association rules analysis and complex system entropy method integrated in the data mining software Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS) were applied to process the data. Results: Top 25 drugs with high frequency in the treatment of each disease were selected, and 51, 33 and 22 core combinations treating headache, stomachache and dysmenorrhea respectively were mined out as well. Conclusions: The composition rules of the oral prescriptions for treating headache, stomachache and dysmenorrhea recorded in NSCPD has been summarized. Although there were similarities between them, formula varied according to different locations of pain. It can serve as an evidence and reference for clinical treatment and new drug development.
Objective: To investigate apoptotic effects of berberine, a significant alkaloids component existing in Rhizoma coptidis, and its possible acting mechanism in insulinoma cells. Methods: Different concentrations of berberine were used to treat mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells for various period of time. The viability and apoptosis of the cells were analyzed using methylthiazolyldiphenvl-tetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay. Changes in the relating pro- and anti-apoptosis proteins were detected by western-blotting. Results: The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of berberine was 5.7 mu mol/L on MIN6 cells viability for 16 h. Berberine caused a 20% reduction (P<0.05) in cell number after only 4-h incubation; which reached 50% after 24 h (P<0.01). Berberine treatment for 16 h significantly increased the level of DNA fragmentation. The flow cytometry showed the apoptotic rate increased 2.9- and 4.6- fold after treating with berberine (5 mu mol/L) for 8 and 16 h, while 3- and 8.7-fold after 10 mu mol/L treatment for 8 and 16 h (P<0.01). Berberine treatment dramatically elevated the expression ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Meanwhile, berberine notably increased the apoptosis-inducing factors and cytochrome C transforming from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. Apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) was subsequently activated after cytochrome C release. Furthermore, caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase were also activated to trigger apoptosis cascade. Conclusion: High concentration (5 and 10 mu mol/L) of berberine could induce the apoptosis of MIN6 cells through cytochrome C/Apaf-1/caspase-3 and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) pathway.
Objective: To characterize the molecular mechanism underlying the antineoplastic activity of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. extracts (COE). Methods: The human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) knockdown expressed (HepG2/mTOR(-)) were constructed using molecular biological technology. In vitro, the HepG2/mTOR(-) cells were treated with COE at various concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mu g/mL). Cell viability was determined using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. According to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (140 mg/L), the concentrations of COE in the subsequent experiment was set to alleviate cytotoxicity. The HepG2/mTOR(-) cells were divided into 5 groups: negative control (untreated), COE treatment groups (40, 80, 120 mg/L COE) and positive control group (cisplatin, DDP, 2 mg/L), respectively. Wild-type HepG2 cells were used as a blank control. The effects of COE on the cell apoptosis were analyzed by flflow cytometry and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), respectively. The protein expression levels of mTOR signal pathways were determined by Western blotting. In vivo, HepG2/mTOR(-) cells (2x10(6) cell/mice) were subcutaneously injected into the right flank of nude mice. Thirty-six female nude mice were randomly assigned to 6 groups according to body weight (6 mice per group) as follows: solvent vehicle control, Banmao Capsule treated group (BM, 195 mg/kg), Tegafur, Gimeracil and Oteracil Potassium Capsules (10 mg/kg) treated group, and different dosages of COE (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) groups. Tumor growth was monitored and immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in tumor tissues. Results: COE inhibited the proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in HepG2/mTOR(-) cells (P<0.01). COE significantly induced the apoptosis of HepG2/mTOR(-) cells (P<0.01), and the apoptotic bodies can be observed under TEM. COE significantly inhibits the proteins expression of mTOR-related signal pathways. In vivo, COE significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice (P<0.01). Moreover, the results showed that COE down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and up-regulated the levels of Bax and caspase-3 protein (P<0.01). Conclusion: COE was a potential chemotherapeutic drug in HCC treatments via targeting mTOR signal pathway.
Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effects of paeoniflorin on migration- and invasion-promoting capacities of gastric cancer associated fibroblasts (GCAFs) and to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the effects. Methods: Paired gastric normal fibroblast (GNF) and GCAF cultures were established from resected tissues. GCAFs were treated with control medium, or 2.5, 5 or 10 mu g/mL paeoniflorin. Conditioned media were prepared from GNFs, GCAFs, control-treated GCAFs and paeoniflorin-treated GCAFs, and used to culture AGS human gastric cancer cells. The migration and invasion capacities of AGS cells were determined with wound healing test and transwell invasion assay, respectively. The interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA and microRNA-149 expression in GCAFs were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The IL-6 protein expression and secretion by GCAFs were measured with Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis, respectively. The protein levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and MMP9 in AGS cells were examined by Western blot. Results: GCAFs displayed enhanced capacities to induce AGS cell migration and invasion as compared with GNFs. Paeoniflorin treatment significantly inhibited the migration- and invasion-promoting capacities of GCAFs (P<0.05). GCAFs produced and secreted more IL-6 into the conditioned medium than GNFs, leading to over-activation of STAT3-MMP signaling in AGS cells. Paeoniflorin suppressed IL-6 production and secretion by up-regulating microRNA149 expression in GCAFs, and subsequently prevented GCAFs from activating IL-6-STAT3-MMP signaling of AGS cells. Conclusions: Paeoniflorin inhibits the migration- and invasion-promoting capacities of GCAFs by targeting microRNA-149 and IL-6. Paeoniflorin is potentially a novel therapeutic agent against cancer microenvironment.
Objective: To develop an improved version of the Quality-of-Life Assessment instrument for Lung Cancer Patients Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (QLASTCM-Lu) and to evaluate its psychometric property. Methods: The structured group method and the theory in developing rating scale were employed to revise the preliminary scale. The psychometric property (reliability, validity, and responsiveness) of the established QLASTCM-Lu (modified) were evaluated by quality of life data measured in 100 lung cancer patients. Statistical analyses were made accordingly by way of correlation analysis, factor analysis and paired t-test. Results: The internal consistency reliability of the overall scale and all domains was from 0.80 to 0.94. Correlation and factor analyses demonstrated that the scale was good in construct validity. The criterion validity was formed with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire-Lung Cancer (EORTC QLQ-LC43) as the criterion. Statistically significant changes were found apart from such domain as "mental condition" and "social function", with the standardized response means being close to those of QLQ-LC43. Conclusion: QLASTCM-Lu (modified) could be used to measure the quality of life of lung cancer patients with good reliability, validity and a certain degree of responsiveness.
Objective: To investigate the distribution of Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on admission and its impact on prognosis. Methods: A total of 525 AMI patients were prospectively recruited and classified into 4 groups based on their clinical characteristics: excess-heat, excess-cold, deficiency-heat and deficiency-cold syndromes. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) were followed up. Results: The excess syndrome was more common than deficiency syndrome (72.95% vs. 27.05%; P<0.05). Totally 495 (94.29%) of 525 AMI patients were followed up (median 277 days). There were 59 (11.92%) MACEs. After adjusted with confounding factors in Cox regression models, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of excess-heat, excess-cold, deficiency-heat and deficiency-cold syndrome groups were 1, 1.25 (0.63, 2.49; P<0.05), 2.37 (1.14, 4.94; P<0.05), 3.76 (1.71, 8.28; P<0.05), respectively. Conclusions: Excess syndrome was more common in AMI patients and had better prognosis, while deficiency-cold syndrome had the poorest prognosis. CM syndrome was of value in predicting long-term outcomes in AMI patients.
Objective: To evaluate the association between Chinese medicine (CM) therapy and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes in postoperative patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This multiple-center prospective cohort study was conducted in 13 medical centers in China. Patients with stage I, II or IIIA NSCLC who had undergone radical resection and received conventional postoperative treatment according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines were recruited. The recruited patients were divided into a CM treatment group and a control group according to their wishes. Patients in the CM treatment group received continuous CM therapy for more than 6 months or until disease progression. Patients in the control group received CM therapy for less than 1 month. Follow-up was conducted over 3 years. The primary outcome was DFS, with recurrence/metastasis rates as a secondary outcome. Results: Between May 2013 and August 2016, 503 patients were enrolled into the cohort; 266 were classified in the CM treatment group and 237 in the control group. Adjusting for covariates, high exposure to CM was associated with better DFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.417, 95% confidential interval (CI): 0.307-0.567)]. A longer duration of CM therapy (6-12 months, 12-18 months, >24 months) was associated with lower recurrence and metastasis rates (HR = 0.225, 0.119 and 0.083, respectively). In a subgroup exploratory analysis, CM therapy was also a protective factor of cancer recurrence and metastasis in both stage II-IIIA (HR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.37-0.67) and stage IIIA NSCLC postoperative patients (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.33-0.71), DFS was even longer among CM treatment group patients. Conclusions: Longer duration of CM therapy could be considered a protective factor of cancer recurrence and metastasis. CM treatment is associated with improving survival outcomes of postoperative NSCLC patients in China.
Tibetan medicine, one of the time-honored medical systems in the world, has increasingly been receiving attention the world over. Tibetan medical paintings (TMP, tib. Sman thang) has become one of the focal points in the studies of this medical system. To date, there are many atlases and publications on TMP, which are principally based on the two major sets of TMP series existing today in the world, the Lhasa set and the Buryat set. It has been found that the Buryat set is based on the Lhasa set, which was brought in late 19th to the first half of the 20th century from Tibet to Buryatia, Russia. A careful investigation on the basic structure of the two sets reveals that there are many differences between the two sets of paintings, including the total number of the paintings involved, of which some are missing in one set, the details of the captions of some of the paintings, the existence of the 80th painting and its supervisor, and the overall order of the entire set, etc. The details of the differences are elaborated and discussed, and the prospective of developing the research to arrive at a standard and perfect TMP set in the future is also analyzed and anticipated.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest systems of medicine. More and more attention has been paid to TCM application, but the variable quality of clinical trials with TCM impedes its widespread acceptance. The Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) 2013 Statement has established guidelines for designing clinical trials to ensure that the trial results are accurate and reliable. However, there are difficulties when applying SPIRIT 2013 Statement to trials with TCM, due to the unique theory and the characteristic of TCM intervention. An Extension to the original SPIRIT was developed to ensure the quality of trial design with TCM. As Chinese herbal formulae, acupuncture and moxibustion are common and representative interventions in TCM practice, the executive working group determined that the SPIRIT-TCM Extension focus on these three interventions. Extension was developed through initiation, 3 rounds of Delphi consensus survey, and finalizing expert meeting. Seven items from the SPIRIT 2013 Statement were modified, namely, "title", "background and rationale", "objectives", "eligibility criteria", "interventions", "outcomes", and "data collection methods". The Extension includes the introduction of the concept of TCM pattern and 3 major TCM interventions, with examples and explanations. The SPIRIT-TCM Extension 2018 provides suggestion for investigators in designing high quality TCM clinical trials. It is expected that wide dissemination and application of this extension ensure continuous improvement of TCM trial quality throughout the world.
As the epitome of the modern regenerative medicine, stem cells were proposed in the basic sense no more than 200 years ago. However, the concept of stem cells existed long before the modern medical description. The hypothesis that all things, including our sentient body, were generated from a small origin was shared between Western and Chinese people. The ancient Chinese philosophers considered Jing (also known as essence) as the origin of life. In Chinese medicine (CM), Jing is mainly stored in Kidney (Shen) and the so-called Shen-Jing (Kidney essence). Here, we propose that Shen-Jing is the CM term used to express the meaning of origin and regeneration. This theoretical discovery has at least two applications. First, the actions underlying causing Shen-Jing deficiency, such as excess sexual intercourse, chronic diseases, and aging, might damage the function of stem cells. Second, a large number of Chinese herbs with Shen-Jing-nourishing efficacy had been proven to affect stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, if Shen-Jing in CM is equivalent with stem cells in regenerative medicine, higher effective modulators for regulating stem-cell behaviors from Kidney-tonifying herbs would be expected.
ObjectiveTo investigate the hemodynamic effect of Shen-Fu Injection (?????, SFI) in early volume resuscitation treated septic shock patients by monitoring pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PICCO).MethodsAll septic shock patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 1st, 2014 to December 31th, 2015, were reviewed, and totally 65 were enrolled in this study. They were assigned to SFI group (33 cases) and control group (32 cases). All 65 patients underwent conventional treatment mainly including volume resuscitation, antibiotics and vasoactive drugs therapy. The patients of the SFI group received additional 100 mL of SFI intravenously every 12 h. In all 65 patients, the PICCO arterial catheter and vein catheter were implanted within 1 h after the diagnosis of septic shock. In the course of early volume resuscitation, hemodynamic data of patients were recorded by PICCO monitor at 0, 12, and 24 h after the catheter implantation.ResultsThe hemodynamic indices of the two groups showed no significant differences at the beginning of 0 h (P>0.05). At 12 and 24 h, the hemodynamic indices of SFI group were significantly improved in comparison with the control group (P<0.05), including cardiac index (CI), global end diastolic volume index (GEDI), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). In addition, there was no significant change of extra-vascular lung water index between the two groups (P>0.05).ConclusionSFI significantly improved hemodynamic indices such as CI, GEDI, MAP and HR in early volume resuscitation treated septic shock patients.
ObjectiveTo investigate the potential antifibrotic mechanisms of Chinese medicine Ganshuang Granules (????, GSG) and to provide clinical therapeutic evidence of its effects.MethodsA cirrhotic mouse model was established by intraperitoneally injecting a mixture of CCl4 (40%) and oil (60%) at 0.2 mL per 100 g of body weight twice a week for 12 weeks. After 12-week modeling, GSG was intragastric administrated to the mice for 2 weeks, and the mice were divided into low-, medium- and high-dose groups at doses of 1, 2 and 4 g/(kg<bold>day</bold>), respectively. Liver morphology changes were observed using Masson's trichrome staining and B-ultrasound. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in serum were detected using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. The expressions of desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and Foxp3 in liver were detected by immunoflfluorescence. The regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency was determined through flflow cytometry analysis. Collagen-I, SMA, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), interleukin (IL)-1 and transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-1) expression levels were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).ResultsMasson's staining result showed fewer pseudolobule structures and fibrous connective tissue in the GSG-treatment groups than in the spontaneous recovery group. Ultrasonography showed that GSG treatment reduced the number of punctate hyperechoic lesions in mice cirrhotic livers. The serum ALT, AST, HA levels were significantly ameliorated by GSG treatment (ALT: F=8.104, P=0.000; AST: F=7.078, P=0.002; and HA: F=7.621, P=0.001). The expression levels of collagen-I and SMA in the cirrhotic livers were also attenuated by GSG treatment (collagen-I: F=3.938, P=0.011; SMA: F=4.115, P=0.009). Tregs, which were elevated in the fibrotic livers, were suppressed by GSG treatment (F=8.268, P=0.001). The expressions of IL-6, TNF- and IL-1 increased, and TGF- levels decreased in the cirrhotic livers after GSG treatment (IL-6: F=5.457, P=0.004; TNF-: F=6.023, P=0.002; IL-1: F=6.658, P=0.001; and TGF-1: F=11.239, P=0.000).ConclusionsGSG promoted the resolution/regression of cirrhosis and restored liver functions in part by suppressing Treg cell differentiation, which may be mediated by hepatic stellate cells.
ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of Zengye Decoction (???, ZYD) on the submandibular glands (SMGs) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.MethodsTwenty-seven female NOD mice were randomly equally divided into 3 groups: the model group, the hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, and the ZYD group. Nine C57/B6 mice served as the normal group. After 1-week acclimation, the HCQ and ZYD groups were intragastrically administered with HCQ and ZYD, respectively, and the normal and model groups were administered with normal saline. Changes in the salivary flow rate were observed. Mice from all 4 groups were sacrificed at the age of 20 weeks. The serum and SMGs were collected. Serum cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histological changes in the submandibular glands were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA expression of IFN-, IL-10 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submandibular glands were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.ResultsCompared with the model group, the salivary flow of the ZYD group significantly increased (P<0.05), the extent of the histological changes was ameliorated (P<0.05), and the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance was remedied (P<0.05). In the ZYD-treated mice, the VIP mRNA was up-regulated (P<0.05).ConclusionsZYD is beneficial in protecting structure and function of SMGs in NOD mice. The mechanism may be associated with the correction of the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance, and with the prevention of a progressive decline of the VIP level.