BACKGROUND: Transradial coronary catheterization is widely used as a diagnostic or interventional procedure for coronary disease. However, it can lead to adverse complications, such as radial artery occlusion. We sought to determine whether preprocedural injection of nitroglycerin at the radial artery puncture site reduces radial artery occlusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 188 patients undergoing transradial coronary catheterization were randomized in a single-blind fashion to receive subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mL 0.1% nitroglycerin or a placebo at the radial artery puncture site. The participants underwent ultrasound examinations of the radial artery before and at 24 hours after the procedure. Of the 188 patients enrolled, 182 completed the study, as the procedure failed in 2 participants in the nitroglycerin-treated group and 4 in the placebo group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between 2 groups. Comparing the radial artery diameters before and after the operation, there was a statistically significant increase in the nitroglycerin-treated group (2.480.45 versus 2.450.46 mm; P=0.003) but a decrease in the placebo control group (2.41 +/- 0.50 versus 2.46 +/- 0.49 mm; P<0.001). Importantly, the incidence of radial arterial occlusion was substantially lower in the nitroglycerin-treated group than in the placebo control group (5.4% versus 14.4%; P=0.04). There was not significant difference in other complications (forearm hematoma and radial artery pseudoaneurysm, respectively), and there was no incidence of cause hypotension or an intolerable headache. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous injection of nitroglycerin at the radial artery puncture site dilates the radial artery and reduces the incidence of early radial artery occlusion post-catheterization.
Background-Provisional stenting is effective for anatomic simple bifurcation lesions. Double kissing crush stenting reduces the 1-year rate of target lesion revascularization. This study aimed to investigate the 5-year clinical results of the DKCRUSH-II study (Randomized Study on Double Kissing Crush Technique Versus Provisional Stenting Technique for Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions). Methods and Results-A total of 370 patients with coronary bifurcation lesions who were randomly assigned to either the double kissing crush or provisional stenting group in the DKCRUSH-II study were followed for 5 years. The primary end point was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event at 5 years. Patients were classified by simple and complex bifurcation lesions according to the DEFINITION criteria (Definitions and Impact of Complex Bifurcation Lesions on Clinical Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Drug-Eluting Stents). At 5 years, the major adverse cardiac event rate (23.8%) in the provisional stenting group was insignificantly different to that of the double kissing group (15.7%; P = 0.051). However, the difference in the target lesion revascularization rate between 2 groups was sustained through the 5-year follow-up (16.2% versus 8.6%; P = 0.027). The definite and probable stent thrombosis rate was 2.7% in each group (P = 1.0). Complex bifurcation was associated with a higher rate of target lesion revascularization (21.6%) at 5 years compared with 11.1% in patients with a simple bifurcation (P = 0.037), with an extremely high rate in the provisional stenting group (36.8% versus 12.5%, P = 0.005) mainly because of final kissing balloon inflation (19.4% versus 5.2%; P = 0.036). Conclusions-The double kissing crush stenting technique for coronary bifurcation lesions is associated with a lower rate of target lesion revascularization. The optimal stenting approach based on the lesions' complexity may improve the revascularization for patients with complex bifurcations.
Background-Early invasive strategies and antithrombotic treatments are key treatments of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Few studies have examined the use of these strategies in patients with NSTE-ACS in China. This study aimed to assess the applications of invasive strategies and antithrombotic treatments in patients with NSTE-ACS and compare their outcomes. Methods and Results-A nationwide registry study, Improving CCC (Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China) ACS project, was launched in 2014 as a collaborative study of the American Heart Association and Chinese Society of Cardiology (CSC), with 142 participating hospitals reporting details of clinical management and outcomes of patients with NSTE-ACS. The use of invasive strategies and antithrombotic treatments was examined based on updated guidelines. Major adverse cardiovascular events were analyzed. A total of 9953 patients with NSTE-ACS were enrolled. Angiography was performed in 63.1% of these patients, and 58.2% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, 40.6% of patients did not undergo early risk assessment, and very-high-risk patients had the lowest proportion of PCI (41.7%). PCI was performed within recommended times in 11.1% of very-high-risk patients and 26.3% of high risk patients. Those who underwent PCI within 2 hours had higher mortality in high-risk and very-high-risk patients who received PCI. Early dual antiplatelet treatment was given in 88.3% of patients. Conclusions-There are notable differences between guideline recommendations and the clinical management of patients with NSTE-ACS in China. The reasons for very-high-risk NSTE-ACS patients not undergoing PCI, and the optimal timing of PCI, require further clarification.
The role of manual thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction has been a matter of intense research and debate now. Although recent randomized controlled clinical trials (notably TASTE [Thrombus Aspiration in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Scandinavia] and TOTAL [Trial of Routine Aspiration Thrombectomy With PCI Versus PCI Alone in Patients With STEMI]) do not supply evidence supporting the routine use of TA in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, manual TA remains a therapeutic option for interventional cardiologists when treating patients with substantial thrombus burden during PPCI. It remains unknown whether patients might actually benefit from TA applied in a more selective manner depending on the thrombus burden during PPCI, instead of routine application. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the instruments used in the TA procedure, positive as well as negative clinical effects of TA during PPCI, and analyze the potential reasons for observed effects, in an effort to help the clinical decision making by physicians for the use of TA in individual ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients during PPCI.