Rationale: Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) is a rare disorder characterized by collections of nonencapsulated mature lipocytes that infiltrate surrounding tissues. In this article, we would report a new case of CILF, which may be one of the first few cases reported in China. Patient Concerns: An 8-year-old boy presented with a hyperplasia of subcutaneous tissue of his left face, which had been gradually progressing since birth, resulting in a marked facial asymmetry. Then he underwent an operation of resection of the subcutaneous mass, and the postoperative pathological analysis reported a mature adipose tissue. Diagnoses and Outcomes: The diagnosis of CILF was finally made according to a comprehensive consideration of the patient's situation. We then searched different databases for studies that had investigated CILF, reviewed those literatures, and gave our summaries for such a rare disease. Lessons: Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is an extremely rare disease. There is so much unknown about it, and the gradual progress and recurrence make it even harder to cure. Besides, the psychological impact on such patients must be considered. Thus, a proper collection and analysis of the reports of such a disease are very important.
Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is an emerging treatment for significant tissue defects. However, VCAs usually consist of multiple highly antigenic skin tissues. Previous studies have shown that the lymphatic system in skin plays important roles in the initiation of immune responses during acute rejection, by transporting T cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes. Therefore, we designed a new surgical treatment to inhibit lymphatic drainage of skin allografts and investigated whether this approach could promote the survival of allografts and suppress immunological events after transplantation. This procedure was achieved by connecting the vascularized allografts to recipient tissues with only an annular plastic holder, allowing the minimum of allograft contact with recipients. Our results showed that the self-designed treatment for inhibiting lymphatic drainage promoted the survival of allografts, reduced the serum concentration of IL-2, and decreased the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD8(+) CD25(+) from the lymphatic nodes draining the transplantation region. In conclusion, these data suggest that self-designed surgical approach is effective in inhibiting lymphatic drainage of skin allografts, and the lymphatic system may be new therapeutic targets for developing techniques or drugs against acute rejection after VCAs.
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of tourniquet inflation pressure setting by ultrasonic Doppler on lower limb operation. Methods Ninety-six patients with total knee arthroplasty were selected in this study from January 2015 to December 2015. The patients were randomly divided into the study group and the control group with 48 cases in each group. In the control group, the tourniquet pressure is determined by the doctor's request for the patient's condition, but all the tourniquet pressure values should be 80 KPa or less. In the study group, ultrasonic Doppler was used to monitor the popliteal artery blood flow of surgery limb with the maximum systolic velocity in artery as a reference value. The pressure of pneumatic tourniquet gradually increased until the maximum systolic velocity was reduced to 0. At this time, the popliteal artery blood flow was not present. The 2 groups of patients with lower extremity tourniquet pressure, hemostatic effect of intraoperative tourniquet, and the incidence of adverse reaction using tourniquets were observed and recorded. Results In the study group, the lower extremity tourniquet pressure and the incidence of adverse reaction using tourniquets were all better than that in control group; the difference between 2 groups was significant (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the effect of hemostasis and the time of tourniquet operation (P > 0.05). Conclusions The method of ultrasonic Doppler setting lower extremity tourniquet pressure during the operation could not only ensure the hemostatic effect, but it could also provide the optimum individual pneumatic tourniquet pressure value for patients. In the meanwhile, it could reduce the incidence of adverse reaction using tourniquets effectively as well as improve the safety of the tourniquet. This method played an important role in the recovery of patients.
Introduction Several factors may influence aesthetic outcomes of ptosis surgery, especially in patients with asymmetrical ptosis. We retrospectively assessed the effect of Hering's law on surgical outcomes of patients with asymmetrical ptosis. Methods Patients with mild to moderate asymmetrical ptosis (N = 300) who underwent advancement or plication of upper eyelid aponeurosis between January 2014 and July 2016 were enrolled. Fifty patients (group A) underwent surgery without taking into consideration the impact of Hering's law. Of these, 35 patients with unilateral ptosis (subgroup A1) underwent standard surgery on the contralateral side, whereas 15 patients with bilateral ptosis (subgroup A2) were first operated on the milder side followed by the more severely affected side. In 250 patients (group B), surgery was performed taking cognizance of the implications of Hering's law. These included 100 patients with unilateral ptosis (B1) and 150 with bilateral ptosis (B2). Difference in bilateral palpebral fissure symmetry by less than 0.5 mm was considered as satisfactory outcome. Results Duration of postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 to 24 months. Satisfactory outcomes were achieved over 60% of patients in group A (A1, 60.6%; A2, 66.67%) and in 96% of patients in group B (B1, 95%; B2, 96.67%). Patients with unsatisfactory outcomes underwent repair according to Hering's law after 3 months and obtained good results. Conclusions Application of Hering's law may improve outcomes of corrective surgery in patients with asymmetric ptosis.
Background High-voltage electrical injuries usually cause extensive and devastating damages to the extremities. Timely and effective coverage of the wounds to maximally preserve the viable tissue is important for salvage and the ultimate functional outcome of the involved extremities. In this study, free anterolateral thigh flaps with a single-perforator pedicle were conducted to maximize tissue salvage and decrease late skeletal and neuromuscular complications of the involved extremities injured by high-voltage electricity. Methods From June 2012 to December 2015, 12 patients with high-voltage electrical injuries on the extremities were recruited. After primary or secondary debridement, free anterolateral thigh flaps with a single-perforator pedicle were used for limb salvage. Patients' clinical records, including etiology, sex, age, perforator type, defect location, duration before admission, defect and flap size, timing of reconstruction, and complications, were extracted and analyzed. Results All patients were followed up ranging from 10 to 25 months, with an average follow-up of 15.9 months. Free anterolateral thigh flap with a single-perforator pedicle was performed for 12 consecutive patients with high-voltage electrical injuries. The mean time taken before the transplantation of the flap was 5.25 days, with a range from 2 to 8 days. The average size of the resultant defects after debridement was 187.0 cm(2) (84-350 cm(2)), the average size of the flaps was 265.3 cm(2) (119-448 cm(2)), and the average time of the surgical operation was 314.6 minutes (260-355 minutes). All flaps healed uneventfully without associated complications. No weakness of the donor thigh was observed in all cases. Conclusions Free anterolateral thigh flaps with a single-perforator pedicle were an effective and reliable therapeutic intervention for the management of severe high-voltage electrical injuries on the extremities.
Background: Wound healing is a complex process that relies on growth factors and stimulation of angiogenesis. Tissue engineering materials composed of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and silk fibroin (SF)/chitosan (CS) may be able to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the wound-healing potential of ADSC-seeded SF/CS in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were purchased and randomly assigned into 3 groups: a control group (no graft), a group treated with SF/CS film graft, and a group treated with ADSC-seeded SF/CS graft. The number of animals in each group was 12. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. A cutaneous wound was incised at the dorsal region of all the experimental animals. The ADSCs were labeled with CM-Dil fluorescent staining. Wound healing was assessed for all animal groups by observing the rate of wound closure and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor at the wound sites was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to evaluate the effect of growth factors secreted by ADSCs. The differentiation of ADSCs was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Results: The ADSC-seeded SF/CS film treatment significantly increased the rates of wound closure in treated animals, and hence wound healing was drastically enhanced for ADSC-SF/CS treatment groups compared with control groups and SF/CS film treatment group. Histological observations showed the condition of wound healing. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence staining observations showed the secretion and differentiation of ADSCs, respectively. Conclusions: Our analyses clearly suggested that it is feasible and effective to enhance wound healing in a diabetic rat model with ADSC-seeded SF/CS film.
Introduction: Peroneal artery perforator flaps are the most widely used pedicled flaps for soft tissue defects of the distal lower extremity. Most research regarding peroneal artery flaps focuses on the location, diameter, and number of peroneal artery perforators. However, there is little literature regarding interperforator flow patterns within the peroneal artery perforator flaps. The aims of the present study were to describe interperforator flow patterns of the distally based extended peroneal artery perforator flaps through digital subtraction angiography and review their clinical application. Methods: Twelve consecutive patients underwent digital subtraction angiography of the lower-limb arteries. The number and classification of peroneal artery perforators and the interperforator flow patterns were observed. Based on these observations, distally based extended peroneal artery perforator flaps were designed to repair nonhealing wounds located on the ankles and feet of 14 patients. Results: The peroneal artery gives out grades I to IV perforators in the lateral leg. There were 2 to 7 grade I perforators and true anastomoses between adjacent grade II perforators, which generate directly linked vessels in the middle leg. The grade III or IV perforators form a reticular vascular network through a large number of chock and potential anastomoses. All flaps survived and had excellent appearance and texture. Conclusions: Distally based extended peroneal artery perforator flaps appear reliable for repairing wounds located on or around the ankle and front foot. However, whether the middle perforator or peroneal artery should be used depends on the condition of the anastomosis between direct linking vessels and the distal perforator.
Background Diabetic rats are more sensitive to nerve entrapment. This study was conducted to evaluate nerve function and histological changes in diabetic rats after nerve compression and subsequent decompression. Methods A total of 35 Wistar rats were included. The experimental group was divided into diabetic sciatic nerve compression group (DSNC, n = 5) and diabetic sciatic nerve decompression group (DSND, n = 20). The DSNC model was created by wrapping a silicone tube circumferentially around the nerve for 4 weeks, and then the DSND group accepted nerve decompression and was followed up to 12 weeks. The DSND group was equally divided into DSND 3 weeks (DSND3), 6 weeks (DSND6), 9 weeks (DSND9), and 12 weeks (DSND12) groups. Five rats were taken as normoglycemic control group (CR, n = 5), and another 5 rats as diabetic control group (DM, n = 5). The mechanical hyperalgesia of rats was detected by Semmes-Weinstein nylon monofilaments (SWMs) and by motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV). These 2 physiological indicators and histology of sciatic nerves were compared among different groups. Results The SWM measurements improved toward normal values after decompression. The SWM value was significantly lower (more normal) in the DSNC groups than in the DSND group (P < 0.05). The MNCV was 53.7 0.8 m/s in the CR group, whereas it was 28.4 +/- 1.0 m/s in the DSNC group (P < 0.001). Six weeks after decompression, the MNCV was significantly faster than that in the DSNC group (P < 0.001). Histological examination demonstrated chronic nerve compression, which responded toward normal after decompression, but with degree of myelination never recovering to normal. Conclusions Chronic compression of the diabetic sciatic nerve has measureable negative effects on sciatic nerve motor nerve function, associated with a decline of touch/pressure threshold and degeneration of myelin sheath and axon. Nerve decompression surgery can reverse these effects and partially restore nerve function.
Background Auricular reconstruction in patients with congenital microtia permits craniofacial balance and harmony, especially in patients with bilateral microtia. However, published techniques usually require skin grafting, which can lead to color mismatch and visible scarring. Some surgeons prefer to reconstruct the auricle of each side separately, which prolongs the complete cycle of surgery and increases suffering of the patient. In this study, we introduce a modified technique using single expanded flaps without skin grafting to achieve simultaneous bilateral auricular reconstruction. Methods Between January 2012 and January 2017, a total of 54 patients with bilateral microtia underwent auricular reconstruction with expanded single flaps. Simultaneous bilateral auricular reconstruction was accomplished through 3 surgical stages. In the first stage, bilateral postauricular skin was expanded using 2 kidney-shaped tissue expanders. In the second stage, bilateral rib cartilage was harvested using minimal incisions, allowing 2 modified 3-layer frameworks to be fabricated. Each framework was then inserted into the pocket through the same incision with subsequent closure using 2-layer suture. In the third stage, the reconstructed ears were further trimmed, if necessary, and the lobules and tragus reconstructed. All the patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months. Results During follow-up, patients were satisfied with surgical outcome in terms of size, shape, location, detailing, and symmetry of the bilateral ears in more than 50 cases. Only 4 demonstrated postoperative complications. No skin necrosis, exposure of cartilage, or infection was observed or postoperative chest deformities. Conclusions Simultaneous bilateral auricular reconstruction using single expanded flaps combined with a modified 3-layer cartilage framework is an effective technique for patients with bilateral microtia.
Objective This study aimed to introduce a new technique for the correction of mild or moderate types of cryptotia. Methods During January 2010 to March 2015, patients with cryptotia deformities came to our hospital and were enrolled in this study. A new surgical method of correction of abnormal cartilage by combining irregular incisions in auricle malformation and directional transplantation of auricular cartilage was designed. The irregular Z shaped flap was designed to correct the skin defects. In the ipsilateral cavum conchae, the auricular cartilage strut was harvested, followed with irregular cartilage incisions and cartilage transplantation. Results After correction, the corrected auricles in 3 cases showed natural contour with deep auriculotemporal sulcus and no conspicuous scars. The antihelix folding and backward rotation deformities of the auricular cartilage were corrected, and the morphology of superior and inferior crus of the antihelix was not destroyed. One case appeared necrotic. During 1 year of follow-up, there was no incidence of recurrence or revision. Conclusions The combined techniques for correction of abnormal cartilage are simple and easy to operate, and the reconstructed auricles show natural contour without conspicuous scars. The new technique is suitable for correction of mild and moderate cryptotia.
Background This article presents a new method using orbital septum for double-eyelid blepharoplasty. Methods During double-eyelid blepharoplasty, we incised the orbital septum horizontally. Using the attachment site of the levator aponeurosis as a pedicle, the lower part of the dissected orbital septum was turned downward and then sutured to the upper border of the lower orbicularis oculi muscle and posterior pretarsal fascia. We evaluated the efficacy of this double-eyelid surgical procedure in patients undergoing the procedure from December 2015 to October 2017. Results We included 462 eyes of 231 patients in the final analysis. Sutures were removed 7 days after surgery. All double-eyelid creases were well formed, and the eyelids closed well. Six-month follow-up results revealed that the double-eyelid shape was natural looking, and no patients experienced upper eyelid retraction or incomplete eye closure. Notched scars did not occur, and patient satisfaction was achieved in all cases. Two hundred eleven patients were fully satisfied with the surgical results, and 20 were basically satisfied with the surgical results. Conclusions Using the orbital septum is a good approach for double-eyelid blepharoplasty.