Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts of PA using cutaneous wound-healing in mice as the bioactivity model. These three extracts were EE, total polysaccharide and total protein. We also tracked bioactive fractions in the EE by organic reagent extraction, column chromatography and HPLC. Seven compounds were successfully identified from the water elution fraction of the EE of PA using UPLC-MS. Among these compounds, four compounds (P2, P3, P4, P5(1)) were first reported in PA. Some of these compounds have been previously reported to have various pharmacological activities that could contribute to the high wound-healing activity of PA.
The effects of temperature, agitation and aeration on glycoprotein GP-1 production by Streptomyces kanasenisi ZX01 in bench-scale fermentors were systematically investigated. The maximum final GP-1 production was achieved at an agitation speed of 200 rpm, aeration rate of 2.0 vvm and temperature of 30 degrees C. By using a dynamic gassing out method, the effects of agitation and aeration on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a) were also studied. The values of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient in the logarithmic phase increased with increase of agitation speed (from 14.53 to 32.82 h(-1)) and aeration rate (from 13.21 to 22.43 h(-1)). In addition, a successful scale-up from bench-scale to pilot-scale was performed based on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, resulting in final GP-1 production of 3.92, 4.03, 3.82 and 4.20 mg/L in 5 L, 15 L, 70 L and 500 L fermentors, respectively. These results indicated that constant volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient was appropriate for the scale-up of batch fermentation of glycoprotein GP-1 by Streptomyces kanasenisi ZX01, and this scale-up strategy successfully achieved 100-fold scale-up from bench-scale to pilot-scale fermentor.
GP-1 is a novel glycoprotein produced by Streptomyces kanasenisi ZX01 that was isolated from soil near Kanas Lake with significant bioactivity against tobacco mosaic virus. However, extremely low fermentation production has largely hindered further research and market applications on glycoprotein GP-1. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize fermentation conditions in a shake flask for higher glycoprotein GP-1 production. When the optimized fermentation conditions were inoculum volume of 6%, initial pH of 6.5, and rotating speed of 150 rpm, glycoprotein GP-1 production could reach 0.9253 mg/L, which was increased by 52.14% compared to the original conditions. In addition, scale-up fermentation was conducted in a 5-L bioreactor to preliminarily explore the feasibility for mass production of glycoprotein GP-1 in a large fermentor, obtaining GP-1 production of 2.54 mg/L under the same conditions, which was 2.75 times higher than the production obtained from a shake flask of 0.9253 mg/L. This work will be helpful to improve GP-1 production on a large scale and lay the foundations for developing it as a novel agent against plant virus.
Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are crucial factors that affect the quality of grapes and the making of wine, which were stimulated by various stimuli and environment factors (sugar, hormones, light, and temperature). The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) and light on the mechanism of anthocyanins and PAs accumulation in grape berries. Grape clusters were sprayed with EBR (0.4 mg/L) under light and darkness conditions (EBR + L, EBR + D), or sprayed with deionized water under light and darkness conditions as controls (L, D), at the onset of veraison. A large amount of anthocyanins accumulated in the grape skins and was measured under EBR + L and L treatments, whereas EBR + D and D treatments severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicated that EBR treatment could produce overlay effects under light, in comparison to that in dark. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that EBR application up-regulated the expression of genes (VvCHI1, VvCHS2, VvCHS3, VvDFR, VvLDOX, VvMYBA1) under light conditions. Under darkness conditions, only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to EBR. Furthermore, we also analyzed the expression levels of the BR-regulated transcription factor VvBZR1 (Brassinazole-resistant 1) and light-regulated transcription factor VvHY5 (Elongated hypocotyl 5). Our results suggested that EBR and light had synergistic effects on the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.
Fish oil has several dietary benefits, but its application in food formulations is limited because of its poor water-solubility, easy oxidation and strong odor. The purposes of this study were to produce a fish oil/-oryzanol nanoemulsion and to evaluate the effect of adding this nanoemulsion on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurts. Adding fish oil/-oryzanol nanoemulsion resulted in a significant reduction in the acidity and syneresis of yogurt. Yogurt with the nanoemulsion had significantly lower peroxide value (0.28 mmol/L after 21 days) and higher retention of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents (decreased to 95% and 94% of its initial value, respectively) than yogurt with fish oil/-oryzanol (peroxide value = 0.65 mmol/L; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents decreased to 72% and 53% of its initial value, respectively). Fish oil/-oryzanol nanoemulsion incorporated into yogurt had closer sensory attributes scores to plain yogurt. This study may have important implications for the application of fish oil/-oryzanol nanoemulsion in yogurt.
Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), an edible fungus growing in Taiwan, has various health benefits. This study was designed to examine the potential inhibitory effects of AC oligosaccharides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. By trifluoroacetic acid degradation, two oligosaccharide products were prepared from AC polysaccharides at 90 degrees C (ACHO) or 25 degrees C (ACCO), which showed different oligosaccharide identities. Compared to ACCO, ACHO displayed better inhibitory effects on LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1, TNF- and MCP-1 in macrophage cells. Further, ACHO significantly suppressed the inflammation in lung tissues of LPS-injected C57BL/6 mice. The potential anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism may be associated with the promotion of protein O-GlcNAcylation, which further skewed toward the marked suppression of p38 and Akt phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the suppressive effect of AC oligosaccharides on inflammation may be an effective approach for the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage. After determination in serum, liver and spleen, ITP-treated mice showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH) activities and lower nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA) activities than VC-treated mice, KTP-treated mice and untreated oxidation mice (control group). By H&E section observation, the mice induced by d-galactose-induced oxidation showed more changes than normal mice, and oxidative damage appeared in liver and spleen tissues; ITP, VC and KTP improved oxidative damage of liver and spleen tissues, and the effects of ITP were better than VC and KTP. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot experiments, it was observed that ITP could increase the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), cupro/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (-GCS), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in liver and spleen tissues compared to the control group. These effects were stronger than for VC and KTP. Both ITP and KTP had good antioxidative effects, and after the transformation of insects, the effects of ITP were better than that of KTP and even better than VC. Thus, ITP can be used as an antioxidant and anti-ageing functional food.
Daidzein, the main bioactive soy isoflavone in Nature, has been found to possess many biological functions. It has been investigated in particular as a phytoestrogen owing to the similarity of its structure with that of the human hormone estrogen. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on daidzein metabolism, further research is still required to clarify its in vivo metabolic fate and intermediate processes. In this study, an efficient strategy was established using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry to profile the metabolism of daidzein in rats. Meanwhile, multiple data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filtering (MMDF), neutral loss fragment (NLF), and diagnostic product ion (DPI) were utilized to investigate daidzein metabolites from the HR-ESI-MS1 to ESI-MSn stage in both positive and negative ion modes. Consequently, 59 metabolites, including prototype compounds, were positively or tentatively elucidated based on reference standards, accurate mass measurements, mass fragmentation behaviors, chromatographic retention times, and corresponding calculated ClogP values. As a result, dehydration, hydrogenation, methylation, dimethylation, glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfonation, ring-cleavage, and their composite reactions were ascertained to interpret its in vivo biotransformation. Overall, our results not only revealed the potential pharmacodynamics forms of daidzein, but also aid in establishing a practical strategy for rapid screening and identifying metabolites of natural compounds.
A series of novel methyl (R)-N-benzoyl/dichloroacetyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylates were designed by active substructure combination. The title compounds were synthesized using a one-pot route from l-cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride, acyl chloride, and ketones. All compounds were characterized by IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, and HRMS. The structure of 4q was determined by X-ray crystallography. The biological tests showed that the title compounds protected maize from chlorimuron-ethyl injury to some extent. The ALS activity assay showed that the title compounds increased the ALS activity of maize inhibited by chlorimuron-ethyl. Molecular docking modeling demonstrated that Compound 4e competed against chlorimuron-ethyl to combine with the herbicide target enzyme active site, causing the herbicide to be ineffective.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs) from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat flowers by hydrodistillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nonanoic acid (7.58%), (E)-3-hexen-1-ol (6.52%), and benzothiazole (5.08%) were the major constituents among the 28 identified components which accounted for 92.89% of the total oil of F. esculentum. 2-Pentadecanone (18.61%), eugenol (17.18%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester (13.19%), and (E,E)-farnesylacetone (7.15%) were the major compounds among the 14 identified components which accounted for 88.48% of the total oil of F. tataricum. Eugenol (12.22%), (E)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate (8.03%), linalool oxide (7.47%), 1-hexanol (7.07%), and benzothiazole (6.72%) were the main compounds of the 20 identified components which accounted for 90.23% of the total oil of F. cymosum. The three VOs were screened to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 100.0 g/mL to 800.0 g/mL against the tested bacteria, and their median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were from 68.32 g/mL to 452.32 g/mL. Xanthomonas vesicatoria was the most sensitive bacterium. Moreover, the flower VOs of F. esculentum, F. tataricum and F. cymosum also exhibited noteworthy antioxidant capacity with the IC50 value of 354.15 g/mL, 210.63 g/mL, and 264.92 g/mL for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, and the value of 242.06 g/mL, 184.13 g/mL, and 206.11 g/mL respectively for the -carotene-linoleic bleaching test. These results suggested the volatile oils of buckwheat flowers could be potential resource of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.
Oligosaccharides have been used for an environmentally friendly insect control in the agricultural industry. In order to discover novel eco-friendly pesticides, a series of partially acetylated oligorhamnoses mezzettiasides, 2-8, and their analogues, 9-14, with biosurfactant characteristics were designed and synthesized, some of which exhibited comparable to or even stronger aphicidal activity than pymetrozine. Preliminary SAR studies demonstrated that the aphicidal activity of mezzettiasides analogs is highly dependent on their structures, including both the sugar length and the substitutes on the sugar. Among them, trirhamnolipid 9 displayed the strongest aphicidal activity, with an LC50 of 0.019 mmol/L, indicating that the biosurfactant 9 may have potential for use as an environmentally friendly agricultural pesticide.
Branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) are derivatives from the first step in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and can provide important information on animal health and disease. Here, a simple, reliable and effective method was developed for the determination of three BCKAs (-ketoisocaproate, -keto--methylvalerate and -ketoisovalerate) in serum and muscle samples using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF/MS). The samples were extracted using methanol and separated on a 1.8 m Eclipse Plus C18 column within 10 min. The mobile phase was 10 mmol L-1 ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile. The results showed that recoveries for the three BCKAs ranged from 78.4% to 114.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 9.7%. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.06 similar to 0.23 mol L-1 and 0.09 similar to 0.27 nmol g(-1) for serum and muscle samples, respectively. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of three BCKAs in animal serum and muscle samples.
Pyridine derivatives based on the addition of trinitromethyl functional groups were synthesized by the reaction of N2O4 with the corresponding pyridinecarboxaldoximes, then they were converted into dinitromethylide hydrazinium salts. These energetic compounds were fully characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray crystallography. These pyridine derivatives have good densities, positive enthalpies of formation, and acceptable sensitivity values. Theoretical calculations carried out using Gaussian 03 and EXPLO5 programs demonstrated good to excellent detonation velocities and pressures. Each of these compounds is superior in performance to TNT, while 2,6-bis(trinitromethyl)pyridine (D = 8700 ms(-1), P = 33.2 GPa) shows comparable detonation performance to that of RDX, but its thermal stability is too low, making it inferior to RDX.
Dihydroquercetin is a kind of dihydroflavonol compounds with antioxidant, antitumor, antivirus and radioresistance activities. This study attempted to produce the dihydroquercetin complexes with lecithin and -cyclodextrin, and research their characteristics and bioactivities via ultraviolet spectrum (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), and MTT assay. Results showed that the complexes with lecithin and -cyclodextrin could improve the solubility and dissolution rate, and remove the characteristic endothermic peak of dihydroquercetin. IR spectra proved their interaction, and results of SEM and XRD showed the amorphous characteristics of the dihydroquercetin compounds. These results indicated that dihydroquercetin was combined by lecithin or -cyclodextrin with better physical and chemical properties, which would effectively improve the application value in the food and drug industries.
Driver mutation provides fitness advantage to cancer cells, the accumulation of which increases the fitness of cancer cells and accelerates cancer progression. This work seeks to extract patterns accumulated by driver genes (fitness relationships) in tumorigenesis. We introduce a network-based method for extracting the fitness relationships of driver genes by modeling the network properties of the fitness of cancer cells. Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) and skin cutaneous malignant melanoma (SKCM) are employed as case studies. Consistent results derived from different background networks suggest the reliability of the identified fitness relationships. Additionally co-occurrence analysis and pathway analysis reveal the functional significance of the fitness relationships with signaling transduction. In addition, a subset of driver genes called the fitness core is recognized for each case. Further analyses indicate the functional importance of the fitness core in carcinogenesis, and provide potential therapeutic opportunities in medicinal intervention. Fitness relationships characterize the functional continuity among driver genes in carcinogenesis, and suggest new insights in understanding the oncogenic mechanisms of cancers, as well as providing guiding information for medicinal intervention.