The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status has become one of the most important factors in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. However, the relationship between EGFR mutation and the histologic subtype of lung adenocarcinoma remains to be fully elucidated. We examined the relationship between the predominant subtype of adenocarcinoma and the prognosis and investigated the correlation between a new subtype of adenocarcinoma and EGFR mutations. This study included 182 patients with adenocarcinoma who underwent complete resection. The rate of EGFR mutation-positive patients was significantly higher among female patients, never smokers, patients with small tumors (< 3 cm in size), patients with well-differentiated tumors, and patients with a pStage I classification. The rates of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and lepidic-predominant subtype were high in male EGFR mutation-positive patients. The prevalence of the acinar and papillary-predominant subtypes was high among EGFR mutation-positive female patients, as was AIS, MIA, and the lepidic-predominant subtype. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the EGFR mutation-positive patients was significantly better than that of the EGFR mutation-negative patients (75.8 vs 67.1%, p = 0.03). However, the multivariate analysis of clinicopathologic and histologic factors did not reveal the prognostic impact of the EGFR mutation status on PFS. The overall survival (OS) of the EGFR mutation-positive patients was significantly better than that of the EGFR mutation-negative patients (93.7 vs 63.4%, p < 0.01). However, in the multivariate analysis the EGFR mutation status was not significantly associated with OS.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for detecting malignant tumors and the assessment of lymph nodes, as FDG-PET/CT is. But it is not clear how DWI influences the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The focus of this study is to evaluate the correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET/CT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI with known prognostic factors in resected lung cancer. A total of 227 patients with resected lung cancers were enrolled in this study. FEG-PET/CT and DWI were performed in each patient before surgery. There were 168 patients with adenocarcinoma, 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 15 patients with other cell types. SUVmax was a factor that was correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation. ADC of lung cancer was a factor that was not correlated to T factor, or N factor. There was a significantly weak inverse relationship between SUVmax and ADC (Correlation coefficient r = -0.227). In analysis of survival, there were significant differences between the categories of sex, age, pT factor, pN factor, cell differentiation, cell type, and SUVmax. Univariate analysis revealed that SUVmax, pN factor, age, cell differentiation, cell type, sex, and pT factor were significant factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax and pN factor were independent significant prognostic factors. SUVmax was a significant prognostic factor that is correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation, but ADC was not. SUVmax may be more useful for predicting the prognosis of lung cancer than ADC values.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed urological malignancies. However, there are limited therapies for PCa patients who develop biochemical recurrence after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of alpha-Viniferin (KCV), an oligostilbene of trimeric resveratrol, against human PCa cells and found that it markedly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and had a strong cytotoxicity in non-androgen-dependent PCa cells. In addition, KCV inhibited AR downstream expression in LNCaP cells, and inhibited activation of GR signaling pathway in DU145 and PC-3. Further investigation indicated that KCV could induce cancer cell apoptosis through AMPK-mediated activation of autophagy, and inhibited GR expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer(CRPC). These findings suggest that KCV may prove to be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of CRPC.
Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. Its symptoms are often not specific and absent, until the tumors have already metastasized. Therefore, there is an urgent demand for developing rapid, highly accurate and noninvasive tools for cancer screening, early detection, diagnostics, staging and prognostics. Saliva as a multi-constituent oral fluid comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, extensively supplied by blood. Molecules such as DNAs, RNAs, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota, present in blood, could be also found in saliva. Recently, salivary diagnostics has drawn significant attention for the detection of specific biomarkers, since the sample collection and processing are simple, cost-effective, and precise and do not cause patient discomfort. Here, we review recent salivary candidate biomarkers for systemic cancers by dividing them according to their origin into: genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbial types.
Fucoidan is a complex of polysaccharides showing antitumor and immunomodulation properties. Our previous studies found its regulation to myeloid immune cells, including macrophages. Aberrant infiltration and functions of macrophages are commonly found in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we analyzed the effects of fucoidan on invasion of OSCC cells, and their regulation to macrophages, trying to evaluate its role as a potential therapy for OSCC. CAL27 and THP-1-derived macrophages were used as models for OSCC cells and tumor-infiltrated macrophages in the in vitro study, respectively. The effects of fucoidan on invasion of OSCC cells and their recruitment to macrophages were analyzed by transwell assay. KIF4A siRNA transfection was performed to investigate its role in fucoidan-modulated OSCC cells invasion. CCL3-neutralizing antibody was added into the conditioned medium of OSCC cells to evaluate its role in fucoidan-mediated macrophages recruitment and re-education. Fucoidan reduced the invasive potential of CAL27 cells with a decrease of MMP-2 and KIF4A transcription. KIF4A knockdown in CAL27 cells led to decreased invasion and MMP-2 expression. The conditioned medium of fucoidan-treated CAL27 cells promoted recruitment and inflammatory cytokines secretion on THP-1-derived macrophages. Further analysis found that fucoidan increased CCL3 production in CAL27 cells. Blocking CCL3 expression reversed the effects of fucoidan on macrophage recruitment and re-education. Our study found that fucoidan regulated the invasion of OSCC cells and also their recruiting and re-educating effects on macrophages, suggesting it could be a complementary approach in the treatment of OSCC.
The purpose of our study is to report safety, technical success, effectiveness, local progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) to treat lung tumours unsuitable for surgery. Nineteen patients with thirty-one tumours (mean diameter 2.4 cm) underwent percutaneous MWA in 28 sessions. Microwave ablation was carried out using a 2450-MHz generator (Emprint/Covidien, Boulder, CO, USA). Procedures were performed under cone-beam CT (CBCT) and under fluoro-CT (one session) guidance. Safety, technical success, effectiveness, LPFS and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Safety was defined as the frequency of major and minor complications. The efficacy was evaluated on the basis of imaging characteristics, using RECIST criteria. CT follow-up was performed at 1, 3 and 6 months and yearly. LPFS was defined as the interval between MWA treatment and evidence of local recurrence, if there was any. OS was defined as the percentage of patients who were still alive. We registered one major complication (purulent hydro-pneumothorax). Minor complications were spontaneously resolved (pneumothorax and perilesional haemorrhagic effusion). Technical success was 100%. Residual disease was registered in two cases, one of whom was retreated. Complete ablation was obtained in the remaining cases (90.3%). During available follow-up (mean 9.6 months), 9/31 tumours demonstrated local recurrence. Five tumours were retreated, and none of them presented residual disease during follow-up (LPFS 22.6%). Overall survival was 93.8%. Percutaneous high-energy MWA is a safe, effective and confident technique to treat lung tumours not suitable for surgery.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma. Complete surgical resection remains the only potentially curative option for patients with ICC. However, until now, early diagnosis with potential surgical intervention has been the exception rather than the rule with only 30% of patients qualifying for attempted surgical cure. Many patients are unresectable because of disease stage, anatomic conditions, medical comorbidities, and small future remnant liver. Interventional radiology procedures are available for these types of patients with intra-arterial therapies and/or ablative treatments both for curative and for palliative treatment. The goals of interventional therapy are to control local tumor growth, to relieve symptoms, and to improve and preserve quality of life. The choice of treatment depends largely on tumor extent and patient performance. No randomized studies exist to compare treatments. The present review describes the current evidence of the interventional treatments in the management of the ICC. Moreover, interventional procedures available to increase the future liver reserve before surgery were analyzed.
Epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (Ect2) was originally reported as an oncogene that is involved in several types of human cancers. However, little is known about its expression and function in prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for Ect2 was performed on a human tissue microarray. The staining intensity was analyzed in association with clinical pathological parameters such as Gleason score, pathological grade, clinical stage, tumor invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis. Furthermore, we repeated such analysis and investigated the prognostic value of Ect2 using the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) Dataset. Our immunohistochemical results showed that the expression levels of Ect2 protein were enhanced in human prostate cancer tissues. There existed positive correlations between the expression levels of Ect2 and several clinicopathological parameters, including advanced clinical stage, enhanced tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. Similarly, we found that the expression levels of Ect2 were positively related to Gleason score, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and high distant metastasis in the TCGA Dataset. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that lower levels of Ect2 mRNA predicted higher overall survivals and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survivals in all patients or non-metastatic patients. Multivariate analysis by Cox regression showed that the expression of Ect2 could be an independent prognostic marker of poor BCR-free survivals. Therefore, levels of Ect2 may serve as a novel marker for the diagnosis or prognosis of prostate cancer.
It is important to select an appropriate reference gene and miRNA when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze gene and miRNA expression. However, many commonly used reference genes and miRNAs are not stably expressed and therefore not suitable for normalization or quantification of qRT-PCR data. This study aims to identify appropriate reference genes and miRNAs for use in human esophageal squamous carcinoma qRT-PCR analysis. Using data provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified DDX5, LAPTM4A, P4HB, RHOA, miR-28-5p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-186-5p as candidate reference genes and miRNAs. We used qRT-PCR to verify the expression levels of these candidates and another seven commonly used reference genes and miRNAs. A set of 50 paired human normal esophageal tissues and squamous cell carcinoma samples were used in the analysis. We then used geNorm and NormFinder to analyze the results. DDX5, LAPTM4A, RHOA, ACTB, RNU48, miR-28-5p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-186-5p were stably expressed, indicating they are suitable for used as references in qRT-PCR analysis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, expression levels of 18s rRNA, GAPDH, P4HB, 5s rRNA, U6, and RNU6B varied greatly between esophageal normal and squamous cell carcinoma samples, indicating that they are not suitable for use as references in the qRT-PCR analysis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Energetic carbon ions (CI) offer great advantages over conventional radiations such as X-or c-rays in cancer radiotherapy. High linear energy transfer (LET) CI can induce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in tumor cells under certain circumstances. The molecular connection between ER stress and autophagy in tumor exposed to high-LET radiation and how these two pathways influence the therapeutic effect against tumor remain poorly understood. In this work, we studied the impact of autophagy and apoptosis induced by ER stress following high-LET CI radiation on the radiosensitivity of S180 cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, X-rays were also used as a reference radiation. Our results documented that the combination of CI radiation with chloroquine (CQ), a special autophagy inhibitor, produced more pronounced proliferation suppression in S180 cells and xenograft tumors. Co-treatment with CI radiation and CQ could block autophagy through the IRE1/JNK/Beclin-1 axis and enhance apoptotic cell death via the activation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) by the IRE1 pathway rather than PERK in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study indicates that inhibiting autophagy might be a promising therapeutic strategy in CI radiotherapy via aggravating the ER stress-related apoptosis.