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miR125a attenuates BMSCs apoptosis via the MAPK-ERK pathways in the setting of craniofacial defect reconstruction

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 0; ()

Bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-based regenerative therapy is critical for the craniofacial defect reconstruction. However, oxidative stress microenvironment after transplantation limits the therapeutic efficiency of BMSC. The miR-181c has been found to be associated with cell survival and proliferation. Herein, we investigated whether prior miR-181c treatment promoted BMSC proliferation and survival under oxidative stress injury. The results in our study demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment reduced BMSC viability and this effect could be reversed via additional supplementation of miR181-c. Mechanistically, oxidative stress increased cell apoptosis, augmented caspase-3 activity, promoted reactive oxygen species synthesis, impaired mitochondrial potential, and induced mitochondrial dynamics imbalance. However, miR-181c pretreatment reversed these effects of oxidative stress on BMSC. Moreover, miR-181c treatment improved BMSC proliferation, migration and paracrine, which are very important for craniofacial reconstruction. In addition, we identified that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mitofusins-1 (Mfn1) axis was the direct targets of miR-181c in BMSC. Mfn1 silencing impaired the protective effects miR-181c on BMSC viability and proliferation under oxidative stress environment. Collectively, our results indicate that miR-181c participates in oxidative stress-mediated BMSC damage by modulating the AMPK-Mfn1 signaling pathway, suggesting miR-181c-AMPK-Mfn1 axis may serves as novel therapeutic targets to facilitate craniofacial defect reconstruction.

Long noncoding RNA PTENP1 affects the recovery of spinal cord injury by regulating the expression of miR-19b and miR-21

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Exosomes derived from differentiated P12 cells and MSCs were proved to suppress apoptosis of neuron cells, and phosphatase and tensin homolog pseudogene 1 (PTENP1) was reported to inhibit cell proliferation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PTENP1 in the process of post-spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery, so as to evaluate the therapeutic effects of exosomes derived from MSCs transfected with PTENP1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), as a type of novel biomarkers in the treatment of SCI. Electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of different exosomes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, flow cytometry, Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry assay, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay were conducted to investigate and validate the underlying molecular signaling pathway. PTENP1-shRNA downregulated PTENP1 and PTEN while upregulating miR-21 and miR-19b. PTENP1-shRNA also accelerated cell apoptosis and reduced cell viability. In addition, PTENP1 reduced the miR-21 and miR-19b expression by directly targeting miR-21 and miR-19b. Meanwhile, both miR-21 and miR-19b reduced the expression of PTEN by directly targeting the 3 '-untranslated region of PTEN. Furthermore, PTEN level and apoptosis index of neuron cells was the highest in the SCI group, while the treatment with exosomes+PTENP1-shRNA reduced the PTEN expression to a level similar to that in the sham group. Finally, PTENP1 inhibited miR-21 and miR-19b expression but upregulated PTEN expression. The upregulation of miR-21/miR-19b also suppressed the apoptosis of neuron cells by downregulating the PTEN expression. PTENP1 is involved in the recovery of SCI by regulating the expression of miR-19b and miR-21, and exosomes from PTENP1-shRNA-transfected cells may be used as a novel biomarker in SCI treatment.

Deregulation of UCA1 expression may be involved in the development of chemoresistance to cisplatin in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer via regulating the signaling pathway of microRNA-495/NRF2

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. As a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin has been used for over 30 years in NSCLC treatment while its effects are diminished by drug resistance. Therefore, we aimed to study the potential role of UCA1 in the development of chemoresistance against cisplatin. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western-blot analysis, and immunofluorescence were used to study the involvement of UCA1, miR-495, and NRF2 in chemoresistance against cisplatin. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to determine the effect of cisplatin on cell proliferation. Computational analysis and luciferase assay were carried out to explore the interaction among UCA1, miR-495, and NRF2. The cisplatin-R group exhibited lower levels of UCA1 and NRF2 expression but a higher level of miR-495 expression than the cisplatin-S group. The growth rate and half-maximal inhibitory concentration of cellular dipeptidyl peptidase (cisplatinum) of the cisplatin-R group were much higher than those in the cisplatin-S group. MiR-495 contained a complementary binding site of UCA1, and the luciferase activity of wild-type UCA1 was significantly reduced after the transfection of miR-495 mimics. MiR-495 directly targeted the 3 '-untranslated region (3 '-UTR) of NRF2, and the luciferase activity of wild-type NRF2 3 '-UTR was evidently inhibited by miR-495 mimics. Finally, UCA1 and NRF2 expressions in the effective group were much lower than that in the ineffective group, along with a much higher level of miR-495 expression. We suggested for the first time that high expression of UCA1 contributed to the development of chemoresistance to cisplatin through the UCA1/miR-495/NRF2 signaling pathway.

Analysis of lncRNA-mRNA networks after MEK1/2 inhibition based on WGCNA in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) responds poorly to treatment. Efforts have been exerted to prolong the survival time of PDA, but the 5-year survival rates remain disappointing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of PDA development is significant. MEK/ERK pathway signaling has been proven to be important in PDA. lncRNA-mRNA networks have become a vital part of molecular mechanisms in the MEK/ERK pathway. Herein, weighted gene coexpression network analysis was used to investigate the coexpressed lncRNA-mRNA networks in the MEK/ERK pathway based on GSE45765. Differently expressed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) were found and 10 modules were identified based on coexpression profiles. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were then performed to analyze the coexpressed lncRNA and mRNA in different modules. PDA cells and tissues were used to validate the analysis results. Finally, we found that NONHSAT185150.1 and B4GALT6 were negatively correlated with MEK1/2. By analyzing GSE45765, the genome-wide profiles of lncRNA-mRNA network after MEK1/2 was established, which might aid the development of drug-targeting MEK1/2 and the investigation of diagnostic markers.

The combined inhibition of the CaMKII delta and calcineurin signaling cascade attenuates IGF-IIR-induced cardiac hypertrophy

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Cardiac hypertrophy is a common phenomenon observed in progressive heart disease associated with heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) has been much implicated in myocardial hypertrophy. Our previous studies have found that increased activities of signaling mediators, such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin induces pathological hypertrophy. Given the critical roles played by CaMKII and calcineurin signaling in the progression of maladaptive hypertrophy, we anticipated that inhibition of CaMKII and calcineurin signaling may attenuate IGF-IIR-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The current study, therefore, investigated the effects of IGF-IIR activation on the CaMKII and calcineurin signaling and whether the combinatorial inhibition of the CaMKII delta and calcineurin signaling could ameliorate IGF-IIR-induced pathological hypertrophy. In the present study, we induced IGF-IIR through the cardiomyocyte-specific transduction of IGFII(Y27L) via adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) to evaluate its effects on cardiac hypertrophy. Interestingly, it was observed that the activation of IGF-IIR signaling through IGFII(Y27L) induces significant hypertrophy of the myocardium and increased cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis. Moreover, we found that Leu(27)IGF-II significantly induced calcineurin and CaMKII expression. Furthermore and importantly, the combinatorial treatment with CaMKII and calcineurin inhibitors significantly alleviates IGF-IIR-induced hypertrophic responses. Thus, it could be envisaged that the inhibition of IGF-IIR may serve as a promising candidate for attenuating maladaptive hypertrophy. Both calcineurin and CaMKII could be valuable targets for developing treatment strategies against hypertension-induced cardiomyopathies.

Hypoxia modulates stem cell properties and induces EMT through N-glycosylation of EpCAM in breast cancer cells

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein, is related to tumor progression. We demonstrated that EpCAM plays important roles in proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis during breast cancer (BC) progression. But the role of N-glycosylation in EpCAM in tumor aggressiveness is not clear. Here, we evaluated the role of N-glycosylation of EpCAM in stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics. EpCAM overexpression increases the expression of stemness markers (NANOG?SOX2, and OCT4) and EMT markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) under the condition of hypoxia in BC. Knockdown of EpCAM and mutation of N-glycosylation of EpCAM maintained in severe hypoxia lead to a significant reduction of stemness/EMT markers. In addition, we found that N-glycosylation of EpCAM is a crucial factor during this process. This demonstrates that EpCAM has a novel regulatory role in stemness/EMT dependence of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha via regulating nuclear factor kappa B in BC cells. Hence, our study reveals EpCAM glycosylation modification as a new regulator of stemness/EMT under hypoxic in BC and points out EpCAM as a potential therapeutic target.

Transforming growth factor-beta signaling confers hepatic stellate cells progenitor features after partial hepatectomy

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 0; ()

Liver regeneration involves not only hepatocyte replication but progenitor aggregation and scarring. Partial hepatectomy (PH), an established model for liver regeneration, reactivates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are primarily responding cells for TGF-beta and resident in stem cell niche. In the current study, PH mice were treated with SB-431542, an inhibitor of TGF-beta Type I receptor, aiming to address the role of TGF-beta signaling on the fate determination of HSCs during liver regeneration. After PH, control mice exhibited HSCs activation, progenitor cells accumulation, and a fraction of HSCs acquired the phenotype of hepatocyte or cholangiocyte. Blocking TGF-beta signaling delayed proliferation, impaired progenitor response, and scarring repair. In SB-431542 group, merely no HSCs were found coexpressed progenitor makers, such as SOX9 and AFP. Inhibition of TGF-beta pathway disturbed the epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and diminished the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin as well as the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in HSC during liver regeneration. We identify a key role of TGF-beta signaling on promoting HSC transition, which subsequently becomes progenitor for generating liver epithelial cells after PH. This process might interact with an acknowledged stem cell function signaling, Wnt/beta-catenin.

Inhibition of microRNA-327 ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through targeting apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Apoptosis is the major cause of cardiomyocyte death in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the regulation of cardiomyocytes apoptosis by posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression networks. However, the effects of miR-327 in regulating MI/RI-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis have not been extensively investigated. This study was performed to test whether miR-327 participate in cardiomyocytes apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, and reveal the potential molecular mechanism of miR-327 regulated MI/RI through targeting apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/RI by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 30 min and reperfusion for 3 hr. H9c2 cells were exposed to hypoxia for 4 hr and reoxygenation for 12 hr to mimic I/R injury. miRNA-327 recombinant adenovirus vectors were transfected into H9c2 cells for 48 hr and rats for 72 hr before H/R and MI/RI treatment, respectively. The apoptosis rate, downstream molecules of apoptotic pathway, and the target reaction between miRNA-327 and ARC were evaluated. Our results showed that miR-327 was upregulated and ARC was downregulated in the myocardial tissues of MI/RI rats and in H9c2 cells with H/R treatment. Inhibition of miR-327 decreased the expression levels of proapoptotic proteins Fas, FasL, caspase-8, Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and the release of cytochrome-C, as well as increasing the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 via negative regulation of ARC both in vivo or vitro. In contrast, overexpression miR-327 showed the reverse effect. Moreover, the results of luciferase reporter assay indicated miR-327 targets ARC directly at the posttranscriptional level. Taken together, inhibition of miR-327 could attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis and alleviate I/R-induced myocardial injury via targeting ARC, which offers a new therapeutic strategy for MI/RI.

lncRNA RPL34-AS1 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion while promoting apoptosis by competitively binding miR-3663-3p/RGS4 in papillary thyroid cancer

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 80% of all thyroid cancers and seriously impacts the quality of people's lives. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in PTC. In previous studies, thousands of lncRNAs were screened to study their potential relationships with PTC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RPL34-AS1 in PTC and to explore its potential mechanisms. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to characterize the possible function and biological features of RPL34-AS1. Apoptosis, proliferation, and invasion were detected to assess the effect of RPL34-AS1. Cell proliferation was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Western blot analysis was used to assess the apoptosis proteins Bax and Bcl-2. Cell invasion was measured using a Transwell assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to examine RPL34-AS1, miR-3663-3P, and RGS4 expression. Dual-luciferase assay was performed to assess the binding of miR-3663-3P by RPL34-AS1. RIP experiment was used to verify the combination between miR-3663-3p and RGS4. We found that overexpression of RPL34-AS1 could inhibit proliferation and invasion while promoting apoptosis in PTC cell lines. Moreover, RPL34-AS1 could also competitively bind miR-3663-3p and exert its function by regulating the miR-3663-3p/RGS4 in PTC cell lines. We found a previously uncharacterized lncRNA, RPL34-AS1, and studied its function and mechanism in PTC. Our research will provide new insights into PTC and new clues for its clinical treatment.

The circ_0021977/miR-10b-5p/P21 and P53 regulatory axis suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion in colorectal cancer

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 0; ()

An in-depth understanding of circular RNAs (circRNAs) indicates that they are abundant in the eukaryotic transcriptome. Many circRNAs act as microRNA sponges; thus, they represent a new type of regulatory factor. However, the role of circRNA in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. Low circ_0021977 expression in patients with CRC is associated with higher tug-lymph node metastasis (TNM) stage and poorer prognosis compared with patients with high circ_0021977 expression. Moreover, miR-10b-5p was shown to be a target of circ_0021977, and p21 and p53 are suggested to be putative target genes of miR-10b-5p. The results showed that the circ_0021977/miR-10b-5p/p21&p53 regulatory axis suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion by CRC cells. This evidence reveals new relationships and brings new highlights to the treatment of CRC.

HSP90 regulates osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by targeting the p53/TCF-1-mediated transcriptional network

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor that occurs predominantly in children and teenagers. Although many genes, such as p53 and Rb1, have been shown to be mutated, deregulation of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is frequently observed in OS. We recently demonstrated that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is involved in the regulation of runt-related transcription factor 2 via the AKT/GSK-3 beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway in OS. However, the precise role of T cell factors/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCFs/LEF) family members, which are the major binding complex of beta-catenin, in OS is poorly understood. In the present study, we first demonstrated that TCF-1 is overexpressed in OS compared with other bone tumors. Knockdown of TCF-1 significantly induced cell cycle arrest, severe DNA damage, and subsequent caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, coexpression of HSP90 and TCF-1 was observed in OS, and mechanistically, we demonstrated that TCF-1 expression is regulated by HSP90 either through a beta-catenin-dependent mechanism or a direct degradation of the proteasome. We also found that overexpression of TCF-1 partially abolishes the apoptosis induced by HSP90 inhibition. Furthermore, we provided evidence that p53, but not miR-34a, plays a crucial role in the HSP90-regulated TCF-1 expression and subsequent apoptosis. Given the diverse combination regimens of HSP90 inhibition with some other treatments, we propose that the p53 status and the expression level of TCF-1 should be taken into consideration to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of HSP90 inhibition.

Gestational diabetes mellitus affects odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla cells via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in offspring

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important factor involved in the pathogenesis of organ development in the offspring. Here, we analyzed the effects of GDM on odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla cells (DPCs) and dentin formation in offspring and investigated their underlying mechanisms. A GDM rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and offspring were collected. The results showed that GDM significantly affected odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation in offspring tooth. GDM activated the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-& x138;B) signaling pathway and inhibited SMAD1/5/9 signaling to modulate the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs in offspring. Inhibition of TLR4 signaling by treated with TAK-242 significantly reverses the suppression of odonto-differentiation of DPCs in diabetic offspring. Taken together, these data indicate GDM activated the offspring DPCs TLR4/NF-& x138;B signaling, which suppressed the SMAD1/5/9 phosphorylation and then inhibited odontoblasts differentiation and dentin formation.

Study of FABP's interactome and detecting new molecular targets in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Fatty acids (FAs) play a crucial role in the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), FAs function requires the participation of fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP). Current studies have shown that different members of the FABP's family play different roles in the tumorigenesis of ccRCC. Therefore, the systematic analysis of FABPs will be of great significance. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of nine FABPs have yet to be elucidated. In this study, through multiple analysis and verification of multiple databases, such as ONCOMINE, The Human Protein Atlas, UALCAN, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, and cBioPortal, we found that the expression of FABP1 was significantly downregulated and the expression of FABP5/6/7 was significantly upregulated in ccRCC compared with renal tissues, and the patients with high messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the FABP5/6/7 or low mRNA levels of FABP1 were predicted to have a lower overall survival or disease-free survival. Further analysis by the protein-protein interaction (PPI), Gene Ontology pathway, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway showed that FABPs were mainly involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway. In coexpression analysis, we found that FABP1/5/6/7 was coexpressed with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), PPARA, and LPL. This study implied that FABP1/5/6/7 could act as an important tumor biomarker of ccRCC; the role of FABPs may be related to PPAR or TGF-beta pathway.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 modulates pain sensitivity by suppressing the ROS-RUNX3 pathway in a rat model of neuropathy

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Neuropathic pain correlates with a lesion or other dysfunction in the nervous system. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) is expressed in the central nervous system and modulates synaptic plasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the role of S1P2 in neuropathic pain caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI). Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into eight groups (n = 15 for each group): sham, CCI, CCI + green fluorescent protein, CCI + S1P2, CCI + Ctrl-short hairpin RNA (shRNA), CCI + S1P2 shRNA, CCI + S1P2 + CYM-5442, and CCI + S1P2 shRNA + CYM-5442. The CCI model was established via sciatic nerve ligation. S1P2 was overexpressed or knocked down by intrathecal injection of adeno-associated virus-S1P2 (AAV-S1P2) or AAV-S1P2 shRNA. The S1P1 agonist, CYM-5442 (1 mg/kg), was injected intraperitoneally after surgery. S1P2 expression, pain thresholds, apoptosis signaling, inflammation, and oxidative stress in rats were then examined. We found that sciatic nerve injury downregulated S1P2 expression in the spinal cords of rats. S1P2 overexpression enhanced pain thresholds. In contrast, S1P2 knockdown decreased pain thresholds in rats exposed to CCI. CCI and S1P2 silencing increased secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and CCL2, whereas S1P2 overexpression decreased. S1P2 impeded CCI-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and runt-related transcription factors 3 (RUNX3) downregulation, and S1P2 knockdown had the opposite effect. S1P2 overexpression suppressed Bax and active caspase 3 expression and promoted Bcl-2 expression, whereas loss of S1P2 reversed their expression. Additionally, S1P1 activation counteracted the effect of S1P2 on pain sensitivity. In conclusion, S1P2 is downregulated in CCI rats and may help modulate neuropathic pain via the ROS/RUNX3 pathway.

Identification of novel LncRNA targeting Smad2/PKC alpha signal pathway to negatively regulate malignant progression of glioblastoma

期刊: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, 2020; 235 (4)

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly proliferative cancer with generally poor prognosis and accumulating evidence has highlighted the potential of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the biological behaviors of glioma cells. This study focused on the identification of lncRNAs to identify targets for possible GBM prognosis. Microarray expression profiling found that 1,759 lncRNAs and 3,026 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were upregulated, and 1932s lncRNA and 2,979 mRNAs were downregulated in GBM. Bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification identified TCONS_00020456 (TCON) for further analysis. In situ hybridization, along with immunohistochemical and receiver operating characteristic analysis determined TCON (truncation value = 3.5) as highly sensitive and specific in GBM. Grade IV patients with glioma life span with different lncRNA staining scores were analyzed. TCON staining scores below 3.5 indicated poor prognosis (life span ranging from 0.25 to 7 months), even if the glioma was surgically removed. TCON decreased significantly in GBM, and showed a coexpressional relationship with Smad2 and protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha). Overexpression of TCON reduced the proliferation on one hand and migration, invasion on the other. TCON also inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transformation and glioma progression in vivo, based on a nude mouse tumorigenicity assay. In addition, we predicted a potential binding site and intersection that microRNAs targeting Smad2, PKC alpha, and TCON through RACE pretest and bioinformatics analysis. Taken together, TCON, regarded as oncosuppressor, targeting the Smad2/PKC alpha axis plays a novel role in inhibiting the malignant progression of glioma. Moreover, it also demonstrates that the level of TCON can be used as a prognostic and diagnostic biomarker for GBM.

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