Although obesity (characterized by high levels of serum leptin) and deregulated expression of miRNAs are both functionally implicated in the pathogenesis of chemoresistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the mechanistic link synchronize these two factors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression levels of obesity-associated miR-342-3p were significantly upregulated in gemcitabine (GEM)-resistant PDAC tissues and cells, and this upregulation was associated with poor postchemotherapy prognosis. Using pharmacological approaches, we observed that crosstalk between leptin and Notch signaling pathways regulated fundamentally the miR-342-3p expression in GEM resistant PDAC cells. Functionally, forced expression of miR-342-3p exhibited a prosurvival effect and potentiated GEM resistance, whereas inhibition of miR-342-3p expression noticeably ameliorated chemosensitivity in GEM -resistant PDAC cells. By employing bioinformatics analysis, point mutation and luciferase reporter assays, we further identified the 3'-UTR of tumor suppressor Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) as the direct target of miR-342-3p. Therapeutically, stable expression of the exogenous KLF6 was sufficient to abrogate the pro-survival effects of miR-342-3p in GEM-treated PDAC cells. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin-elicited miR-342-3p upregulation mediates, at least partially, the GEM resistance through inhibition of KLF6 signaling in PDAC. Considering the indispensable function of miR-342-3p during adipogenesis, this obesity-associated miRNA may operate as a novel posttranscriptional integrator linking lipid homeostasis and pancreatic chemoresistance. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The transcription co-factor TAZ plays critical roles in the regulation of human carcinogenesis. However, the pathological role for TAZ in lung cancer has remained incompletely understood. TAZ expression was examined by immunohistochemistry for 163 NSCLC tissues. TAZ expression was also examined by western blotting for 20 frozen paired NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissues. We report that TAZ is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and correlates with shorter patient survival. Intriguingly, we find that TAZ is overexpressed primarily in lung squamous cell carcinomas (LUSC) but not lung adenocarcinomas (WAD) compared to normal lung tissues, and that the expression levels of TAZ are significantly higher in LUSC than LUAD. The nuclear localization of TAZ correlates worse clinical outcomes in LUSC, but not LUAD, further suggesting a prognostic value for activated TAZ in LUSC. A meta analysis of the public datasets from TCGA, Broad institute, and Oncomine shows that the TAZ gene (WWTR1) copy numbers are significantly increased in LUSC and correlate with the increase of TAZ mRNA expression, suggesting that TAZ is overexpressed in LUSC at least partly through gene amplifications. Collectively, our results suggest that TAZ expression distinctly associates with subtypes of NSCLC and may be useful for developing novel therapeutics treating LUSC. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dioscorea zingiberensis is a perennial medicinal herb rich in a variety of pharmaceutical steroidal saponins. Squalene epoxidase (SE) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis pathways of triterpenoids and sterols, and catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene in coordination with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). In this study, we cloned DzSE and DzCPR gene sequences from D. zingiberensis leaves, encoding proteins with 514 and 692 amino acids, respectively. Recombinant proteins were successfully expressed in vitro, and enzymatic analysis indicated that, when SE and CPR were incubated with the substrates squalene and NADPH, 2,3-oxidosqualene was formed as the product. Subcellular localization revealed that both the DzSE and DzCPR proteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The changes in transcription of DzSE and DzCPR were similar in several tissues. DzSE expression was enhanced in a time-dependent manner after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments, while DzCPR expression was not inducible. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ETS1 (E26 transformation specific-1) is the founding member of ETS transcriptional factor family. It transcriptionally modulates numerous gene expressions, and is involved in cellular differentiation, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, drug resistance and tumorigenesis. ETS1 is usually regarded as an oncogene. However, its apoptosis-inducing activity was also frequently reported. Here, we identified RYBP (Ring1 and YY1 binding protein), a critical epigenetic regulator and apoptosis enhancer, as a novel transcriptional target of ETS1. Specifically, we found that overexpression of ETS1 up-regulates the promoter activity of RYBP in HEK293T and tumor cells from different tissue origins, indicating a universal transcriptional regulatory effect. Subsequently, both overexpression and RNA interfering experiments demonstrated that ETS1 positively modulates RYBP expression from both mRNA and protein levels. Bioinformatics analysis combined with site-directed mutagenesis suggested that there probably exist a multiple of ETS1 binding sites in RYBP promoter region, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay validates the physical association between ETS1 protein and RYBP promoter region. Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of ETS1 significantly suppresses tumor cell proliferation. However, this inhibitory effect was partially compromised when RYBP was concomitantly knocked down by its specific short hairpin RNA. Meanwhile, we provide evidence to demonstrate that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is possibly involved in this regulatory loop. Taken together, our current study identified RYBP as a new transcriptional target which is utilized by ETS1 to carry out its tumor cell growth inhibitory effect. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macrophages play a major role in the control and elimination of invading Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Emerging studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in resident macrophages in Mtb. However, the regulatory mechanism between lncRNAs and macrophages in tuberculosis (TB) remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of Mtb-associated lncRNA PCED1B-AS1 on macrophage apoptosis and autophagy. Our study first evaluated PCED1B-AS1 expression in the CD14(+) monocytes from patients with active tuberculosis and from healthy individuals. It was found that PCED1B-AS1 expression was down-regulated in patients with active tuberculosis, accompanied by significant attenuated monocyte apoptosis and enhanced autophagy. In vitro, knockdown of PCED1B-AS1 reduced macrophage apoptosis and promoted autophagy. PCED1B-AS1 serves as an endogenous sponge to block miR-155 expression in macrophages by directly binding to miR-155. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of FOXO3/Rheb, target genes of miR-155, reversed the PCED1B-AS1-mediated effects on macrophage apoptosis and autophagy. Altogether, our data indicate that PCED1B-AS1 modulates macrophage apoptosis and autophagy by targeting the miR-155 axis in active TB. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Both Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) and Never-in-mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (NEK1) are involved in primary cilium formation, but whether VHL could regulate NEK1 is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that renal cancer cells Caki-1 and ACHN with wild-type VHL expressed lower level of NEK1 than that of VHL-defective cells including 786-O, 769-P and A498 cells. VHL-overexpression down-regulated NEK1 in 769-P cells, while VHL-knockdown up-regulated NEK1 in Caki-1 cells. In addition, we found the hypoxia response element (HRE) in the promoter sequence of NEK1 and hypoxia induced NEK1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. HIF-2 alpha knockdown blocked hypoxia induced NEK1 upregulation instead of HIF-1 alpha, which indicates that NEK1 may be a new target of HIF-2 alpha. Moreover, we confirmed the association between VHL and NEK1 in Caki-1 cell, then showed VHL promoted NEK1 protein degradation and ubiquitination. In conclusion, our findings showed VHL regulates NEK1 via both HIF-2 alpha pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in renal cancer cells. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
p53-related p63 plays a critical role in regulation of cell proliferation, survival and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of p63 functions results in a disruption of a variety of normal biological processes, including stem cell biology, embryonic development, aging and tumorigenesis. Delta Np63 alpha, a predominantly expressed p63 protein isoform in epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in regulation of cell cycle progression and cell growth. p38 MAP kinases (p38MAPK) are the members of mitogen-activated protein kinases family and are critical in regulation of cell survival in response to stress signals. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of Delta Np63 alpha inhibited phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Acute knockdown of p63 led to a significant upregulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation, resulting in increased p21(cip1/waf1) expression, reduced phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (RB), cell cycle G1 arrest and cell growth retardation. Restoration of Delta Np63 alpha expression reversed cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition induced by p63 ablation. Pharmacological inhibition of p38MAPK significantly suppressed Delta Np63 alpha ablation-induced cell cycle G1/S arrest. In addition, MAP Kinase Phosphatase 3 (MKP3) was responsible for Delta Np63 alpha-mediated regulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that Delta Np63 alpha-MPK3-p38MAPK signaling pathway plays an important role in cell cycle progression and cell growth. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In the past decade, research on the biology of the gut-liver axis has assisted in understanding the basic biology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, in its role as a crucial injury-related molecule, displays a substantial correlation with the degree of liver steatosis. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the current study of ASC(-/-) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD), we observed disorder of the gut microbiota along with abnormal increases in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio and in Streptomyces, both of which were detected by 16S rDNA sequencing. Therefore, we investigated the intestinal mucosal injury and analyzed the NAFLD activity score and found that the ASC(-/-)-HFD group was more severely impaired than the others. Moreover, HMGB1 increased significantly in the intestinal tissue and was co-localized with an exosomal marker. We revealed that HMGB1 was significantly elevated in the exosomes of the ASC(-/-)-HFD group. It transported by exosomes from the intestine to the liver, thereby triggering hepatic steatosis when dysbiosis. In conclusion, the findings indicated that HMGB1 plays a crucial role in the gut-liver axis mechanism. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purpose: To investigate the expression and significance of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) FAM84B-AS in gastric cancer tissues and its effect on platinum drug resistance in gastric cancer. Methods: (1) The expression of FAM84B-AS was detected in samples from 228 cases of fresh gastric cancer to analyze its association with clinical data and gastric cancer prognosis. (2) An lncRNA interference cell line model was established and used to study the effects of FAM84B-AS on the malignant biological behaviors of gastric cancer cells and platinum drug resistance at the cellular level. (3) The mechanisms underlying the effect of FAM84B-AS on gastric cancer were investigated using Western blotting. Results: (1) FAM84B-AS was closely associated with the differentiation level, T stage, and N stage of gastric cancer and could be used as an independent risk factor of the prognosis of gastric cancer. (2) FAM84B-AS interference significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells and significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis. FAM84B-AS could partially restore the sensitivity of drug resistant cells to platinum drugs. The above results were also confirmed in in vivo studies. (3) Western blot results demonstrated that FAM84B-AS interference could activate apoptosis signaling pathways in gastric cancer cells to promote apoptosis in gastric cells. Conclusion: FAM84B-AS could be used as a molecular marker of the malignancy of gastric cancer and offers a certain predictive function for gastric cancer prognosis. FAM84B-AS promotes gastric cancer proliferation through inhibition of apoptosis signaling pathways and promotes drug resistance of gastric cancer cells to platinum drugs through its apoptosis-inhibiting functions. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MicroRNA-501-3p (miR-501-3p) has been reported as a novel cancer-related miRNA in many types of cancer. However, the precise biological function of miR-501-3p in prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory effect and mechanism of miR-501-3p on cell growth of prostate cancer cells. We found that miR-501-3p expression was significantly downregulated in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Gain-of-function experiments showed that upregulation of miR-501-3p expression significantly decreased cell proliferation and colony formation, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) was a potential target gene of miR-501-3p., and the results of our luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-501-3p bound to the 3'-untranslated region of CREPT at the predicted binding site. Moreover, miR-501-3p was shown to negatively regulate CREPT expression in prostate cancer cells. Correlation analysis showed that miR-501-3p was inversely correlated with CREPT expression in prostate cancer tissues. Knockdown studies revealed that miR-501-3p regulated the expression of cyclin D1 by targeting CREPT. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of miR-501-3p on prostate cancer cell growth was partially reversed by CREPT overexpression. Overall, these results suggest that miR-501-3p restricts prostate cancer cell growth by targeting CREPT to inhibit the expression of cyclin D1. These findings indicate that the miR-501-3p/CREPT/cyclin D1 axis plays a crucial role in the progression of prostate cancer and may serve as potential therapeutic target. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
T cell immunotherapies are promising options in leukemia, among which the CD19/CD3-bispecific T cell engager antibody blinatumomab (MT103) has shown high response rates at very low doses in patients with lymphoma. However, the high CD47 expression in human lymphoma cells has limited the curative effects of blinatumomab other antibodies. Here we report the combined use of blinatumomab with a CD47-blocking antibody. CD47 antibodies preferentially enabled phagocytosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells by both human and murine macrophages. Treatment of human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell-engrafted mice with CD47 antibody and blinatumomab separately inhibited lymphoma partially, while combination treatment led to persistent control of lymphoma. These antibodies enhanced the therapeutic efficacy through mechanisms combining both innate and adaptive immune responses by induction of phagocytosis and T cell cytotoxicity. The combination strategy in this study might be applicable to many other cancers. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An increasing number of reports have indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, many lncRNAs remain unidentified in CRC, and their functions are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the function of lncRNA LOC101927746 in CRC progression. We found that LOC101927746 expression was significantly increased in CRC tissues according to the GEO dataset. Moreover, LOC101927746 expression was positively correlated with tumor stage and metastasis. Additionally, the high expression of LOC101927746 predicted poor prognosis in CRC patients. Functionally, we demonstrated that LOC101927746 silencing significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells. In terms of its mechanism, LOC101927746 could serve as a competing endogenous RNA to inhibit miR-584-3p and activate its target gene SSRP1. The expression of miR-584-3p was inversely correlated with either LOC101927746 or SSRP1 in CRC tissues. The over expression of SSRP1 or inhibition of miR-584-3p could reverse the effects of LOC101927746 knockdown in CRC cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the LOC101927746/miR-584-3p/SSRP1 axis modulates CRC progression. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ischemic stroke is the second most common cause of death, a major cause of acquired disability in adults. However, the pathogenesis that contributes to ischemic stroke has not been fully understood. Dual-specificity phosphatase 14 (DUSP14, also known as MKP6) is a MAP kinase phosphatase, playing important role in regulating various cellular processes, including oxidative stress and inflammation. However, its effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) are unclear. In the study, we found that DUSP14 expression was decreased responding to IR surgery. Over-expressing DUSP14 reduced the infarction volume of cerebral IR mice. Cognitive dysfunction was also improved in mice with DUSP14 over-expression. Promoting DUSP14 expression markedly reduced the activation of glial cells, as evidenced by the decreases in GFAP and Iba-1 expressions in mice with cerebral IR injury. In addition, inflammatory response induced by cerebral IR injury was inhibited in DUSP14 over-expressed mice, as proved by the reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). Furthermore, oxidative stress was markedly reduced by DUSP14 over-expression through elevating nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling pathway. Importantly, we found that DUSP14 could interact with Nrf-1, which thereby protected mice against cerebral IR injury. In vitro, we also found that repressing Nrf-2 expression abrogated DUSP14 over-expression-reduced inflammation and ROS generation. Consistent with the anti-inflammatory effect of DUSP14, reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also down-regulated TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta expressions. Collectively, elevated DUSP14 alleviated brain damage from cerebral IR injury through Nrf-2-regulated anti-oxidant signaling pathway, and the restraining of inflammatory response. These results suggested that DUSP14 might be a potential therapeutic target to prevent ischemic stroke. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Floxuridine (5'-fluorodeoxyuridine, FUdR) acts as an inhibitor of DNA replication by binding to thymidylate synthase and is widely used to treat colorectal cancer. FUdR is also frequently used in research on aging in C elegans since by blocking reproduction it allows maintenance of synchronous nematode populations. Here we examine age-specific effects of exposure to 50 mu M FUdR on pathology and mortality. We report that initiating exposure to FUdR at late development or early adulthood reduces lifespan but later initiation increases it. Moreover, earlier initiation leads to enhancement of senescent intestinal atrophy, but amelioration of several other senescent pathologies (pharyngeal degeneration and uterine tumors). These results provide further evidence of the complex effects of FUdR on aging in C. elegans, and therefore support the argue against its routine use in studies of nematode aging due to its possible confounding effects. However, they also illustrate how effects of FUdR on aging are interesting in their own right. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skin secretions are known as a highly-complex mixture of abundant and diverse bioactive molecules and its study has attracted increasing attention over recent years. Phylloseptin is a unique family of antimicrobial peptides which have been only isolated from frogs of the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. Here, three novel peptide precursors were successfully cloned from a cDNA library, which was constructed from the skin secretion of Phyllomedusa burmeisteri, as pair of primers (one nested universal primer and a designed degenerate sense primer) were employed for "shotgun" cloning. The encoded mature peptides were validated by MS/MS sequencing, and subsequently termed as Phylloseptin-PBa1, -PBa2 and -PBa3. Phylloseptin-PBa1 and -PBa2 were demonstrated to possess potent antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, as well as broad-spectrum anticancer activities, while they possess varying haemolytic activity at the effective concentration. In contrast, Phylloseptin-PBa3 was found to exhibit a strong haemolytic activity even though it was only found to possess a weak antimicrobial activity and inconspicuous anticancer activity. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.