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Safety and feasibility of laparoscopic approaches for the management of Mirizzi syndrome: a systematic review

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (11)

Background Laparoscopic approaches for the management of Mirizzi syndrome (MS) are controversial and challenging procedures for high conversion rate. This review aims at evaluating their safety and feasibility. Methods We reviewed studies related to the laparoscopic approaches for the management of MS with detailed data of articles from January 2009 to December 2019 found in PubMed. Results From 63 articles, we reviewed 17 articles detailing laparoscopic approaches for MS. There were 857 patients with MS; 432 of which were identified from 73,842 patients underwent cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic approaches were attempted in 440 patients and were successful in 290. The conversion rate was 34.09%. Various methods including laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) and (LTCBDE) were performed. The preoperative diagnosis of MS was made in 338 of 500 patients (67.60%). The mean operating time ranged from 49.7 +/- 27.5 min to 270.5 +/- 65.5 min, and the mean intraoperative bleeding varied from 21.1 +/- 15.9 ml to 162.81 +/- 40.83 ml. The mean hospital stay varied from 4.5 +/- 3.7 to 7.21 +/- 1.61 days. Postoperative complications occurred in 27 patients. Conclusions Various laparoscopic approaches are safe and feasible for the treatment of MS in the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeons, especially for type I and II of Csendes classification. Definitive preoperative diagnosis and earlier management are essential.

Outcome of a novel modified endoscopic papillectomy for duodenal major papilla adenoma

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (11)

Background and aims In recent years, with the development of endoscopic techniques, endoscopic resection is widely used for duodenal papillary adenomas, but conventional endoscopic resection has a high rate of incomplete resection and recurrence. On this basis, we have employed a novel modified endoscopic papillectomy (ESP). In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and advantages of this ESP for the treatment of duodenal major papilla adenoma. Methods A total of 56 patients with duodenal major papilla adenoma confirmed by endoscopic ultrasonography, intraluminal ultrasound and gastroscopic biopsy from October 2007 to June 2017 were collected in the Department of Gastroenterology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital. The diameter of the adenoma ranged from 1.41 to 2.02 cm. 16 cases were given the conventional method and 40 cases underwent the modified ESP procedure in which a small incision was made by cutting current when anchoring the snare tip on the distal side of the adenoma. Results En bloc resection rate was significantly higher in the modified group (100%, 40/40) than that in the conventional group (81.3%, 13/16;P = 0.02). However, no significance was seen between the modified group and the conventional group in complete resection rate (92.5%, 37/40 vs 93.8%, 15/16;P = 1.00). There was no significant difference in the number and difficulty of postoperative pancreatic and biliary stents placement between the two groups (P = 0.20). Total bleeding occurrence was much lower in the modified group (37.5%, 15/40 vs 87.5%, 14/16;P = 0.001), and no significant differences were found in other short-term complications and the 3, 6, 12 and 24 months recurrences rate between the conventional and modified ESP groups. Conclusions The modified ESP improves the treatment outcome of duodenal major papilla adenoma with higher en bloc resection rate and lowering bleeding rate.

Predominant classic circular-stapled double-tract reconstruction after totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy: safe, feasible, time-saving anastomoses by technical tie-up

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (11)

Background The double-tract reconstruction (DTR) could be a preferable option in avoiding the postoperative esophageal reflux and anastomotic stenosis during totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG). An optimal procedure to achieve the DTR in TLPG remains to be established. Methods During March 2018 to April 2019, 15 consecutive patients with gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach underwent intracorporeal DTR after TLPG at our hospital. The intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy (E-J), gastrojejunostomy (G-J) and jejunojejunostomy (J-J) were, respectively, performed using circular staplers by the Self-Pulling and Holding Purse-String Suture Technique, Intraluminal Poke Technique and U-shaped Parallel Purse-string Suture Technique (Technical Tie-Up). Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics, perioperative details and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results The mean operating time was 216.1 +/- 18.2 min. Total time for three anastomoses was 49.8 +/- 6.1 min, and the time for E-J, G-J, J-J was 22.4 +/- 5.0 min, 13 (range 11-16) min, 14.2 +/- 2.8 min, respectively. The median proximal and distal resection margins were 2.5 (range 2-4) cm and 6 (range 5-7) cm, respectively, which were all tumor-free in 15 patients. No major complications and mortality occurred. During the median follow-up period of 14 months (range 7 to 20.5 months), there were no postoperative anastomosis-related complications observed, such as anastomotic bleeding, leakage or stenosis. No patients complained the symptoms indicating esophageal reflux and remnant gastritis. Conclusions Predominant classic circular-stapled double-tract reconstruction is safe, feasible and time-saving in TLPG by the technical tie-up.

5G ultra-remote robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in China

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (11)

Background 5G communication technology has been applied to several fields in telemedicine, but its effectiveness, safety, and stability in remote laparoscopic telesurgery have not been established. Here, we conducted four ultra-remote laparoscopic surgeries on a swine model under the 5G network. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness, safety, and stability of the 5G network in remote laparoscopic telesurgery. Methods Four ultra-remote laparoscopic surgeries (network communication distance of nearly 3000 km), including left nephrectomy, partial hepatectomy, cholecystectomy, and cystectomy, were performed on a swine model with a 5G wireless network connection using a domestically produced "MicroHand" surgical robot. The average network delay, operative time, blood loss, and intraoperative complications were recorded. Results Four laparoscopic telesurgeries were safely performed through a 5G network, with an average network delay of 264 ms (including a mean round-trip transporting delay of 114 ms and a 1.20% data packet loss ratio). The total operation time was 2 h. The total blood loss was 25 ml, and no complications occurred during the procedures. Conclusions Ultra-remote laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely and smoothly with 5G wireless network connection using domestically produced equipment. More importantly, our model can provide insights for promoting the future development of telesurgery, especially in areas where Internet cables are difficult to lay or cannot be laid.

The risk of COVID-19 transmission by laparoscopic smoke may be lower than for laparotomy: a narrative review

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (8)

Background Surgical smoke is a well-recognized hazard in the operating room. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical societies quickly published guidelines recommending avoiding laparoscopy or to consider open surgery because of the fear of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through surgical smoke or aerosol. This narrative review of the literature aimed to determine whether there are any differences in the creation of surgical smoke/aerosol between laparoscopy and laparotomy and if laparoscopy may be safer than laparotomy. Methods A literature search was performed using the Pubmed, Embase and Google scholar search engines, as well as manual search of the major journals with specific COVID-19 sections for ahead-of-print publications. Results Of 1098 identified articles, we critically appraised 50. Surgical smoke created by electrosurgical and ultrasonic devices has the same composition both in laparoscopy and laparotomy. SARS-CoV-2 has never been found in surgical smoke and there is currently no data to support its virulence if ever it could be transmitted through surgical smoke/aerosol. Conclusion If laparoscopy is performed in a closed cavity enabling containment of surgical smoke/aerosol, and proper evacuation of smoke with simple measures is respected, and as long as laparoscopy is not contraindicated, we believe that this surgical approach may be safer for the operating team while the patient has the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Evidence-based research in this field is needed for definitive determination of safety.

Predicting the level of difficulty of the double-stapling technique in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (8)

Background The transection of rectum and fashioning of anastomosis is a crucial step in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) and the double-stapling technique (DST) is often employed. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that were associated with difficult DST. Method Cases of laparoscopic TME were retrospectively reviewed. The clinico-anatomical parameters were retrieved from a prospectively maintained database. In addition, pelvic dimensions were taken by reviewing the magnetic resonance imaging scan. The number of stapler cartridges used for intracorporeal transection of rectum was used as a surrogate for the level of difficulty of DST and its relationship with various parameters were evaluated. Results There were a total of 121 consecutive cases analyzed. The mean number of stapler cartridges used was 2.1 +/- 0.7. Pelvic inlet (p = 0.002) and tumor height (p = 0.015) were predictors of the number of cartridges used,R-2 = 0.366. A model was developed to predict the likelihood of transecting the rectum with two or less stapler cartridges, which included the following parameters: gender, pelvic inlet, interspinous distance, intertuberous distance, and tumor height. The predicted probability also correlated with overall operation time (p = 0.009) and anastomotic leakage (p = 0.023). Conclusion The difficulty of DST was associated with patient's clinico-anatomical factors. Surgeons can consider other feasible alternatives, like transanal anastomosis, when a technically challenging DST is anticipated.

The MicroHand S robotic-assisted versus Da Vinci robotic-assisted radical resection for patients with sigmoid colon cancer: a single-center retrospective study

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (8)

Background Sigmoid colon cancer is a lethal disease and has a strong indication for surgery. Robotic-assisted surgery is one of the promising alternative treatment for this disease. Nowadays, the MicroHand S surgical system and the Da Vinci surgical system have been assembled in China. However, there is still no report to study the therapeutic effects of the two robotic-assisted surgical systems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare clinical and economic outcomes of patients with sigmoid colon cancer undergoing robot-assisted radical surgery via The MicroHand S or Da Vinci surgical system. Methods The clinical data of 45 patients with sigmoid colon cancer undergoing the MicroHand S or Da Vinci robotic-assisted surgery at The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2017 to January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Twenty-one patients received MicroHand S robotic-assisted radical surgery and 24 patients received Da Vinci robot-assisted radical surgery. No significant differences were observed in terms of operation time, number of lymph node harvested, blood loss, intestinal exhaust time, time of oral feeding resumption, volume of abdominal cavity 24-h drainage, hospital stay, complication and rate of conversion, removal time of drainage tube and catheter between MicroHand S and Da Vinci group. However, the MicroHand S group had significantly lower hospitalization costs (P = 0.002) and shorter time to get out of bed after surgery (P = 0.04). In addition, no recurrence and metastases were observed in both groups during the follow-up. Conclusions In patients with sigmoid colon cancer, the Da Vinci surgical system did not show obvious clinical advantages compared to the MicroHand S surgical system in surgical outcomes. However, the MicroHand S surgical platform showed advantages in terms of the hospitalization costs and length of postoperative bedtime. The outcome of this study will probably result in a shift to the MicroHand S surgical system as treatment preference in China.

Minimally invasive treatment of mid-low rectovaginal fistula: a transanal endoscopic surgery study

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (9)

Background Treatment of rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) is extremely difficult. No standard surgical procedure is accepted worldwide. The aim of this article was to evaluate a minimally invasive procedure for the repair of mid-low rectovaginal fistula. Methods This is a retrospective review of 17 patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery for the repair of mid-low rectovaginal fistulas (located in the lower or middle one-third of the vaginal wall) at our center between August 2016 and October 2018. The anal approach was adopted for 12 patients: 6 patients were treated directly by rectal mucosal advancement flap (RMAF) with transanal endoscopic surgery (TES), while the other 6 patients underwent initial TES exploration followed by RMAF procedure under direct vision. The vaginal approach was adopted for 5 patients: 3 patients were treated under TES directly and the other 2 were treated under direct vision after initial TES exploration. A total of 9 (52.94%) patients received diverting ileostomy-5 anal approach patients and 4 vaginal approach patients. Results Median age of the patients was 46 years (range 10-76 years), and median BMI was 21.9 (range 17.9-28.1). Median operative time was 75 min (range 60-120 min), and median duration of postoperative hospital stay was 8 days (range 6-15 days). Recurrence was seen in 3/12 anal approach patients vs. 0/5 vaginal approach patients. Both the median preoperative and the median postoperative Wexner score were 0 (range 0-2). The median follow-up time was 8 months (range 2-24). No severe complications occurred in any patient. Conclusion The TES procedure for the treatment of mid-low rectovaginal fistulas avoids any incision of the abdomen and perineal area and appears to be a safe and feasible procedure. This minimally invasive technique is still evolving and is likely to gain wide acceptance in the near future.

Anatomical characteristics and classifications of gastrocolic trunk of Henle in laparoscopic right colectomy: preliminary results of multicenter observational study

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (10)

Background As a key landmark during laparoscopic right colectomy, the classification and variation of the gastrocolic trunk of Henle (GTH) remains to be clarified. The aim of this nationwide multicenter study was to describe the characteristics of the GTH intra-operatively during laparoscopic right colectomies. Methods Three hundred seventy-one patients who underwent laparoscopic right colectomies from January 2018 to March 2019 in 25 hospitals across China were enrolled in the study. The length of the GTH, the classification with a precise description of confluent tributaries, and other variations were analyzed. Results Of the 371 patients, 363 had a GTH. The proportion of type-0, type-I, type-II, and type-III was 15.2% (n = 55), 54.8% (n = 199), 25.3% (n = 92), and 4.7% (n = 17), respectively. The average length of the GTH was 8.5 mm, ranging from 2 to 30 mm. Conclusions This is the first multicenter study with a large sample by which the GTH was classified based on laparoscopic intraoperative observation. Variations in the GTH were classified into four types based on the number of colic drainage veins (right colic, superior right colic, middle colic, accessory middle colic, and ileocolic veins), among which the right colic vein was the most common. The length of the GTH was relatively short, and thus might carry a risk of bleeding. Further clinical data should be correlated with the characteristics of the GTH.

Laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery reduces the adverse impacts of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes: a propensity score-matched analysis

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (10)

Background Sarcopenia is a negative predictor for postoperative recovery. This study was performed to evaluate the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in colorectal cancer patients with sarcopenia. Methods We conducted a study of patients who underwent curative surgeries for colorectal cancer in two centers from July 2014 to July 2018. In order to reduce selection bias, we conducted a propensity score matching analysis. Preoperative characteristics including age, gender, anemia, body mass index, hypoalbuminemia, America society of anesthesiology scores, epidural anesthesia, operative procedure, stoma, tumor location, and combined resection were incorporated in the model, and produced 58 matched pairs. The third lumbar skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and 6 m usual gait speed were measured to define sarcopenia. Short-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results In a total of 1136 patients, 272 had sarcopenia diagnosed, and 227 were further analyzed in this study. Among them, 108 patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery and 119 underwent open colorectal surgery. In the matched cohort, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were well matched. The laparoscopic group had significantly reduced overall complications (15.5% vs. 36.2%,P = 0.016) and shorter postoperative hospital stays (10.5 vs. 14,P = 0.027). Subgroup analysis of postoperative complications showed that the incidence of surgical complications (P = 0.032) was lower in the laparoscopic group. Hospitalization costs (P = 0.071) and 30-day readmissions (P = 0.215) were similar between the two groups. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is a safe and feasible option with better short-term outcomes in patients with sarcopenia.

New treatment method for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): C-BLART (clip band ligation anti-reflux therapy)-a short-term study

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (10)

Objectives C-BLART (clip band ligation anti-reflux therapy) has been reported as a new alternative endoscopic treatment for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluated the short-term efficacy of C-BLART for controlling GERD symptoms, esophageal acid exposure, esophagitis, and quality of life. Methods Patients with refractory GERD were recruited for a nonrandomized concurrent comparison, with 60 patients in the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group and 43 patients in the BID proton pump inhibitor (PPI) group. The primary outcomes were esophageal acid exposure and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. The GERD-Q score, esophagitis grade, and adherence degree were also recorded. Crossover from the BID PPI group to the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group was allowed after 6 months. Results The LES pressure and GERD-Q score improved more in the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group (P < 0.001) after 6 months, with no significant difference in the decrease in esophagitis compared with the baseline endoscopic results (P = 0.268). Treatment with PPIs had been halted in 43% of the patients at 6 months after C-BLART. At 12 months after C-BLART, the DeMeester score showed a significant improvement compared with the baseline measurements (P = 0.025). The GERD-Q score and LES pressure did not significantly improve compared with the baseline values (P = 0.102,P = 0.184) in C-BLART with tailored PPI use group. At 6 to 12 months,n = 6 (10%) patients had undergone laparoscopic fundoplication to control their symptoms in all the patients after C-BLART. Conclusion C-BLART is a novel treatment for controlling refractory GERD symptoms, esophageal acid exposure, and LES pressure according to this short-term analysis, safely performed endoscopically to create an anti-reflux barrier with ligated bands. Despite improvements in DeMeester score, LES pressure, and GERD-Q scores in the C-BLART with tailored PPI use group, many patients continue to demonstrate objective evidence of GERD.

Effects of laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection on liver synthesis function and cirrhosis: a 2-year prospective study

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (11)

Background Laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection (LSD) is widely used for the treatment of esophagogastric variceal haemorrhage and hypersplenism owing to cirrhotic portal hypertension. However, whether LSD improves liver synthesis function and cirrhosis remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of LSD on liver synthesis function and cirrhosis based on a prospective 2-year follow-up study. Methods A total of 118 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension who underwent LSD were included in this study. We analysed clinical data including routine blood parameters, liver function, liver-synthesised proteins (antithrombin III, protein S, and protein C), liver fibrotic markers (type IV collagen (IV-C), procollagen type III (PC-III), laminin, and hyaluronidase), portal vein diameter, and portal blood flow velocity. Results Postoperative portal vein diameter and portal blood flow velocity all showed gradual declines during the 2-year follow-up; compared with preoperative values, these were all significantly decreased from postoperative week (POW) 1 (allP < 0.001). Postoperative Child-Pugh scores and total bilirubin, albumin, international normalised ratio, antithrombin III, protein S, protein C, IV-C, PC-III, laminin, and hyaluronidase levels also all showed gradual improvements during the 2-year follow-up; compared with preoperative levels, these were all significantly improved from postoperative month (POM) 6, POW 1, POM 3, POM 3, POM 3, POM 6, POM 18, POW 1, POM 3, POM 24, and POM 18, respectively (allP < 0.05). Conclusion LSD not only decreases portal hypertension and improves liver function, it also enhances liver synthesis function and reduces liver fibrosis.

Margin diagnosis for endoscopic submucosal dissection of early gastric cancer using multiphoton microscopy

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (1)

Background and Aims Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become the primary option for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Thus, it is necessary to diagnose whether residual cancer cells exist in the ESD specimen margins, which can affect tumor recurrence and survival rates in the future. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be suitably used for nondestructive imaging of biological tissue on a cellular level to enable real-time guidance during endoscopic therapy. Considering this, the objective of this study is to explore the practicality of MPM for the diagnosis of ESD specimen margins in the case of EGC. Methods First, a total of 20 surgical samples was imaged using the proposed MPM technique to obtain two-photo excited fluorescence signal from the intrinsic fluorescent substances within cells and second-harmonic generation signal from collagen; these signals were used to determine MPM pathological features for margin diagnosis. Then, a double-blind study of 50 samples was conducted to evaluate the diagnosis results based on the obtained MPM pathological features. Results Multiphoton microscopy can accurately identify the cytological and morphological differences between tissue in the negative and positive margin. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive, and positive predictive values of MPM in the diagnosis of ESD specimen margins were 97.62, 75.00, 94.00, 95.35, and 85.71%, respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that MPM can be used as an effective, real-time, and label-free novel method to determine intraoperative resection margins.

Replicate systematic review and meta-analyses on robotic surgery: a quality appraisal and overlap investigation

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (1)

Background The number of publications of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (MAs) on robotic surgery have been increasing, including many investigating the same topic. Their quality and extent of overlap remains unclear. We assessed the quality of the MAs in this area and investigated the extent of their overlap. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases up to August 1, 2017. Reporting and methodological quality levels were assessed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklists. A thorough investigation of the extent of overlap was performed. Results In total, 90 MAs in 5 surgical subspecialties were included after full-text review. The mean reporting and methodological quality scores were 22.5 (83.2%) and 7.6 (69.2%), respectively. Authors from university-affiliated institutions and the presence of statistician or epidemiologist coauthors were associated with better-reporting quality scores. The topics with the most overlapping MAs (all >= 6) were robot-assisted thyroidectomy, prostatectomy, gastrectomy, colectomy, and fundoplication. 36 (40%) of the included MAs cited previous MAs on the same topic. Among the 7 MAs comparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy to the open procedure, most (6/7) drew the same conclusion. 50 to 86% of MAs on this topic included the same trials as primary studies. Conclusion Conducting multiple overlapping MAs with identical conclusions on the same topic that are of suboptimal quality may be a waste of resource and effort. Authors from university-affiliated institutes and experts in epidemiology and statistics are more likely to conduct MAs that have better quality. More guidelines and registries are needed to avoid overlapping MAs.

Long-term outcomes of superficial neoplasia at the esophagogastric junction treated via endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection: a cohort study of a single center from China

期刊: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY AND OTHER INTERVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES, 2020; 34 (1)

Background and aims The techniques and indications for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection (ESTD) to remove superficial neoplasia at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) have been developed and expanded. However, the resection of superficial neoplasia at the EGJ by ESD remains challenging, and the long-term clinical outcomes of curative and non-curative resections based on histological criteria remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis on the safety and efficacy of the ESD and ESTD procedure with these patients. Methods The records of 209 consecutive patients at the Chinese PLA General Hospital who received ESD and ESTD to treat EGJ superficial neoplasia from November 2006 to December 2016 were reviewed for this retrospective cohort study. We divided patients into two groups (curative and non-curative resection). Results Of all 14 additional surgeries, 1 patient in the curative group and 13 in the non-curative group underwent surgical operation with residual tumor in 7 specimens. During a median follow-up period of 46.4 months (range 12.2-142.3 months), the 5-year survival rate was 98.6%. Two patients died 91 months and 66 months after surgery due to subarachnoid hemorrhage and lymphoma, respectively. One patient died of gastric cancer 1 year after the surgery. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 99.5%. Local tumor recurrence was detected in 9 of 209 cases. Conclusions In conclusion, ESD was shown to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for early EGJ neoplasia. Mucosal adhesion may increase the difficulty of piecemeal curative resection, but the superficial depth of such an invasion favors better clinical outcomes. Additional surgical resection is a good choice for non-curative ESD, and re-ESD is also an alternative, in conjunction with intensive follow-up.

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