This study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective and antioxidant effect of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz in ischemia-induced male albino Wistar strain rats. Rats were grouped into 5 of 6 numbers each. Group I served as a sham, group II served as control and group III, IV, and V served for 1, 10, and 25 mg/kg/d of an extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz for 15 consecutive days of treatment. Serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase were increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes were reduced in control due to injury. Increased phenol and anthocyanin contents and increased free radical scavenging activity was noted following treatment. Serum marker enzymes, necrosis, and lipid peroxidation, were reduced, whereas antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione were increased. Nitric oxide synthase and Akt expression were also increased following treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that Vaccinium meridionale Swartz may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic injury.
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels (Wampee) is widely grown in China and considered as a healthy fruit. Its leaves are also considered as traditional herbs. This study analyzed polyphenol compounds in polyphenol extracts of the leaves C. lansium (lour.) Skeels (PEL) and investigated the protective effect of PEL against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in T2DM rats. The result showed that PEL is composed mainly of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, coffee acid, ferulic acid, and rutin. PEL could obviously relieve some symptoms of T2DM rats, including emaciation, hyperhidrosis, polyphagia, diuresis, liver swelling, kidney, and pancreas hypertrophy, as well as reduce fasting blood glucose. Moreover, the supplementation of PEL significantly ameliorated lipids disorder and protected liver in T2DM rats, including fat accumulation, improvement of lipid distribution and hepatocyte protection. These results indicate that the Oral of PEL have potential effects of against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic disorders.
The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and changes in the microbial counts of boiled salted duck (BSD) meat packed under various conditions. BSD meat was stored under normal atmosphere (C) and two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions: M1 (N-2, 100%) and M2 (CO2/N-2, 30%/70%) at 4 degrees C. Microbiological quality, pH, redness, lipid oxidation, headspace gas composition, and water activity of BSD meat were measured. The results showed that the time to reach the maximum acceptable total viable counts (TVC, 4.9 log CFU/g) was 12, 18, and 21 d in C, M1, and M2 samples, respectively. Significant difference in the redness values was observed in all treatments during storage. The redness value of C group was significantly lower than that in M1 and M2 groups at the end of storage. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values under MAP were 0.24 to 0.26 mg MDA/kg meat at the end of storage, lower (P < 0.05) than that in C group (0.78 mg MDA/kg meat). The water activity in M2 group was the lowest among all 3 groups. The CO2 concentration in M2 decreased significantly during storage. Our study demonstrates that packaging with 30% CO2 and 70% N-2 (M2) could extend the shelf-life of BSD meat to 21 d during storage at 4 degrees C, suggesting that MAP can be a practical approach to extend the shelf-life and maintain the quality of BSD products.
In this study, magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with carboxylated -cyclodextrin (CM-beta-CD; referred to Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD) were synthesized and used for the efficient removal of cholesterol from milk and egg yolk via host-guest interactions. The results of Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the CM-beta-CD was successfully conjugated to the surface of Fe3O4, and the amount of CM-beta-CD attached on Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD was determined to be 9.164%. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy data revealed that the process of CM-beta-CD coating did not result in a phase change of the Fe3O4, and the Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD nanoparticles were determined to have an average size of about 15 nm. The results of isotherm adsorption and kinetic properties indicated that CM-beta-CD functionalization increased the cholesterol removal efficiency, and the characteristics of cholesterol adsorption on Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD were fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption model and Lagergren pseudo-1st-order kinetic models. Furthermore, compared with the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the functionalized Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD nanoparticles exhibited greater cholesterol removal efficiency, and saponification of the milk and egg yolk was found to be beneficial for the cholesterol removal; using the Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD nanoparticles, 98.8% and 94.6% of the cholesterol was extracted in 1 h from saponified milk and egg yolk, respectively, and the Fe3O4@CM-beta-CD nanoparticles still displayed efficient cholesterol removal after 6 reuses.
A new reaction-based fluorescent probe 6-cyanonaphthalen-2-yl-2,4- dinitrobenzenesulfonate (probe 1) was designed and synthesized for detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The addition of H2S to a solution of probe 1 resulted in a markedfluorescenceincreased accompanied by a visual color change from colorless to yellow. Importantly, this distinct color response indicates that probe 1 could be used as a visual tool for detection of H2S. H2S can be detected quantitatively in the concentration range 0 to 25 mu M and the detection limit was 30 nM. Moreover, probe 1 was successfully used as a sensor to determine H2S levels in red wine and beer.
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270.76 to 278.2 mg/g when pH got increased. delta-Tocopherols are slightly associated with peanut OBs, as it was resistant to the alkaline washing; however, alpha-tocopherols were discovered to be weakly associable. On the contrary, phytosterols content decreased when pH got increased, with 631.49 mu g/g for pH 6.8 and 614.96 mu g/g for pH 11.0.
To evaluate the role of Maillard reactions in the generation of flavor compounds in Jinhua ham, the reactions of glucose and ethanal with histidine and lysine, respectively, were studied by simulating the ripening conditions of Jinhua ham. The volatile products produced were analyzed using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results showed that 8 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and histidine and 10 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and lysine. Reactions of ethanal with lysine and with histidine both generated 31 volatile compounds that contributed to the flavor of Jinhua ham. This indicates that histidine and lysine related to Maillard reactions possibly play important roles in the generation of the unique flavor compounds in Jinhua ham. This research demonstrates that free amino acids participate in the generation of volatile compounds from Jinhua ham via the Maillard reaction and provides a basic mechanism to explain flavor formation in Jinhua ham.
The differences between the trimethylamine (TMA) content levels in duck and chicken egg yolks under normal dietary conditions were compared. Moreover, the association between the polymorphisms of the duck FMO3 gene and TMA content levels in duck egg yolks was analyzed. Then, to detect the mutations associated with the fish-flavor trait, duck populations were selected for a high-choline diet experiment, which was followed by full-length sequencing of the FMO3 exons. The results showed that the TMA content levels in duck eggs (3.60 mu g/g) were significantly higher than those in chicken eggs (2.35 mu g/g) under normal dietary conditions (P < 0.01). With regard to the high-choline diet, the average TMA content levels in duck egg yolks (9.21 mu g/g; P < 0.01) increased significantly. Furthermore, 5 SNPs reported in Ensembl database were detected in duck FMO3 exons. However, no mutation loci were found to be significantly associated with the TMA content levels in duck egg yolks. Besides, duck liver FMO3 mRNA expression levels were not associated with the TMA content levels. The results indicated that excessive TMA deposition in duck eggs is one of main factors causing the fishy odor in duck eggs, and the addition of choline in the ducks' diets was responsible for inducing an increase in the TMA content levels in duck eggs.
To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines' varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines.
Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are the biggest causes of death globally. Therefore, prevention of these diseases is a focus of pharmaceuticals and functional food manufacturers. This review summarizes recent research trends and scientific knowledge in seaweed protein-derived peptides with particular emphasis on production, isolation and potential health impacts in prevention of hypertension, diabetes and oxidative stress. The current status and future prospects of bioactive peptides are also discussed. Bioactive peptides have strong potential for use in therapeutic drug and functional food formulation in health management strategy, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Seaweeds can be used as sustainable protein sources in the production of these peptide-based drugs and functional foods for preventing such diseases. Many studies have reported that peptides showing angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antidiabetics activities, have been successfully isolated from seaweed. However, further research is needed in large-scale production of these peptides, efficient isolation methods, interactions with functional foods and other pharmaceuticals, and their ease to digestion in in vivo studies and safety to validate the health benefits of these peptides.
3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) is a group 2B carcinogen characterized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and great efforts have been taken to reduce Trp-P-1 mutagenicity to humans. In this study, the effect of a reduction of Trp-P-1 on intestinal absorption as a promising strategy was investigated. The data showed that when 20 mM Trp-P-1 cotransported with 10 mM of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum, or carrageenan, the absorption rate of Trp-P-1 was reduced by 31.5%, 49.5%, or 72.9% in MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayer, respectively; and 64.6%, 83.4%, or 64.1% in rat intestinal tissues, correspondingly. These 3 polysaccharides also reduced pharmacokinetic parameters, that is, C-max, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-), after Trp-P-1 was given to rats intragastrically. However, gum arabic did not exhibit similar effects on Trp-P-1 absorption in vitro or in vivo. The Ames test showed that these 3 polysaccharides reduced Trp-P-1 mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but gum arabic did not. Isothermal titration calorimetry assay indicated that Trp-P-1 interacted with these 3 polysaccharides. Thermodynamic study showed that the actual value of oH <0, but its absolute value greater than the corresponding value of TS, suggest a specific interaction between Trp-P-1 and these 3 polysaccharides, probably through the hydrogen bond and/or ion interaction. Reduction of Trp-P-1 intestinal absorption using food additives could be one of the strategies to suppress Trp-P-1-induced carcinogenesis in human. Practical Application This study provides insightful information for the food industry how gum arabic, xanthan gum, kappa carrageenan, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose affect the absorption of Trp-P-1. This study also provides novel information regarding a better formulation for meat products to reduce Trp-P-1 absorption. 1.2.
The dried fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional Chinese herb tea rich in sophoricoside that is an isoflavone glycoside. The aim of current study was to investigate the hepatic protective effect of sophoricoside in high fructose (HF) diet fed mice. Healthy male mice were fed 30% fructose water and treated 80 and 160 mg/kgbw sophoricoside continuously for 8 wk. Our data showed that administration of sophoricoside at 80 and 160 mg/kgbw observably decreased the body weight and liver weight in HF-fed mice. It was found that the treatment of sophoricoside decreased the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B levels, and elevated the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A1 levels. Moreover, the administration of sophoricoside decreased the HF-caused elevations of hepatic malonaldehyde, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor- levels, while increased the HF-induced decreases of hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were reduced by treatment of sophoricoside in HF-fed mice. Histopathology of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining of liver tissues also confirmed the beneficial effects of sophoricoside against liver injury induced by HF-diet in mice. These findings indicated that sophoricoside may be a novel natural isoflavone for alleviating HF-induced liver injury. Practical ApplicationFruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional herb tea and it recently becomes popular in China. Sophoricoside is an isoflavone glycoside (Genistein-4'-O--d-glucopyranoside) isolated from S. japonical L, and it possessed differential effects on the body health. The ingestion of sophoricoside or sophora fruit tea may be a novel strategy to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test. Further analysis indicated that AKO might reduce -amyloid (A) accumulation in hippocampus through decreasing the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain of SAMP8 mice. Practical ApplicationThe results of Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test indicated that Antarctic krill oil (AKO) improved the cognitive function and anxiety of SAMP8 mice. AKO reduced the A(42) level in hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. AKO ameliorated oxidative stress in brain rather than in serum and liver of SAMP8 mice.
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 g/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS-stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0.05) restore the reduced immune organs indices, phagocytic index, lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice model. COS can also improve the survival rate in irradiation injury mice and significantly (P < 0.05) increased the spleen indices and up-regulates the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in splenocytes. In sum, the aforementioned results suggest that COS might has the potential to be used as an immunostimulatory agent in patients with immune dysfunctions or be a model for functional food development. Practical ApplicationCOS might has the potential to be used as an immunostimulatory agent in patients with immune dysfunctions or be a model for functional food development.
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) have been reported. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of SY and GA combination on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury in rats and to explore their synergistic mechanisms of action. Forty adult male Wistar rats randomly allotted to 5 groups: (A) worked as control, (B) was administered CCl4, (C-E) were fed daily by GA, SY, and GA+SY respectively after mixing with basal diet, following CCl4-intoxication. GA and SY combination significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced reduction in serum total protein with elevation in aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in addition to restoring the histopathological changes and hepatic content of hydroxyproline. GA and SY combination was also effective in reducing lipid peroxidation (MDA), consistent with an increase in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, indicating the suppression of liver oxidative stress. Furthermore, liver inflammation was ameliorated by GA and SY combination through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa (NF-B), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), monocytechemotacticprotein-1 (MCP-1), and toll-like receptor 4(TLR-4) over expression in the liver. Moreover, the up-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression by GA and SY combination enhanced the regeneration of liver tissue after CCl4-administration. The expression of Collagen1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (-SMA), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF1), was obviously ameliorated by GA and SY combination, suggesting the amelioration of profibrotic response of the liver. Taken together, our current study suggests that GA and SY combination exhibit a significant hepatoprotective activity, which more efficient than GA or SY alone. Practical ApplicationChronic liver diseases are the serious health problems, which increase the morbidity and mortality in the world today. Selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) combination might be potential dietary agents could obviously ameliorate chronic liver damage, higher than GA and SY alone. They act to suppress the inflammation and inhibit the profibrotic response as well as support the liver regeneration.