Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases hospitalization risk. Young-onset T2D (YOD) (defined as onset before age 40 years) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, but its effect on hospitalizations is unknown. Objective: To determine hospitalization rates among persons with YOD and to examine the effect of age at onset on hospitalization risk. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Hong Kong. Participants: Adults aged 20 to 75 years in population-based (2002 to 2014; n = 422 908) and registry-based (2000 to 2014; n = 20 886) T2D cohorts. Measurements: All-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates. Negative binomial regression models estimated effect of age at onset on hospitalization rate and cumulative bed-days from onset to age 75 years for YOD. Results: Patients with YOD had the highest hospitalization rates by attained age. In the registry cohort, 36.8% of YOD bed-days before age 40 years were due to mental illness. The adjusted rate ratios showed increased hospitalization in YOD versus usual-onset T2D (onset at age >= 40 years) (all-cause, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.7 to 2.0]; renal, 6.7 [CI, 4.2 to 10.6]; diabetes, 3.7 [CI, 3.0 to 4.6]; cardiovascular, 2.1 [CI, 1.8 to 2.5]; infection, 1.7 [CI, 1.4 to 2.1]; P < 0.001 for all). Models estimated that intensified risk factor control in YOD (hemoglobin A(1c) level <6.2%, systolic blood pressure < 120 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 2.0 mmol/L [<77.3 mg/dL], triglyceride level <1.3 mmol/L [<115.1 mg/dL], waist circumference of 85 cm [men] or 80 cm [women], and smoking cessation) was associated with a one-third reduction in cumulative bed-days from onset to age 75 years (97 to 65 bed-days). Limitation: Possible residual confounding. Conclusion: Adults with YOD have excess hospitalizations across their lifespan compared with persons with usual-onset T2D, including an unexpectedly large burden of mental illness in young adulthood. Efforts to prevent YOD and intensify cardio-metabolic risk factor control while focusing on mental health are urgently needed.
Background: As cardiovascular risk increases in China, interest in strategies to mitigate it is growing. However, national information about the prevalence and treatment of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is limited. Objective: To assess the prevalence and treatment of high CVD risk as well as variations in risk across population subgroups. Design: National project of CVD screening and management. Setting: 141 county-level regions in all 31 provinces of China. Participants: Local residents aged 35 to 75 years. Measurements: Rates of high CVD risk were assessed both in the overall study population and by age, sex, body mass index, geographic region, and socioeconomic status. Multivariable mixed models were fitted to assess the associations between individual characteristics and high CVD risk. Statin and aspirin use was evaluated among persons at high risk for CVD. Results: Among 1 680 126 participants, 9.5% (95% CI, 9.5% to 9.6%) had high risk for CVD. Mixed models identified persons who were of Han ethnicity, had medical insurance, were currently using alcohol, or were obese as more likely to be at high risk for CVD. Of those with high CVD risk, only 0.6% (CI, 0.5% to 0.6%) and 2.4% (CI, 2.3% to 2.5%) reported using statins and aspirin, respectively. Among persons with high CVD risk and hypertension, 31.8% were receiving antihypertensive medications. Limitation: Samples were not nationally representative. Conclusion: Of the 1.7 million participants, 1 in 10 had a high risk for CVD; among those at high risk, fewer than 3% were receiving statins or aspirin. An immense opportunity exists for risk mitigation in this substantial population.
Background: The health benefits and risks of dietary supplement use are controversial. Objective: To evaluate the association among dietary supplement use, levels of nutrient intake from foods and supplements, and mortality among U.S. adults. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from 1999 to 2010, linked to National Death Index mortality data. Participants: 30 899 U.S. adults aged 20 years or older who answered questions on dietary supplement use. Measurements: Dietary supplement use in the previous 30 days and nutrient intake from foods and supplements. Outcomes included mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Results: During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 3613 deaths occurred, including 945 CVD deaths and 805 cancer deaths. Ever-use of dietary supplements was not associated with mortality outcomes. Adequate intake (at or above the Estimated Average Requirement or the Adequate Intake level) of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, zinc, and copper was associated with reduced all-cause or CVD mortality, but the associations were restricted to nutrient intake from foods. Excess intake of calcium was associated with increased risk for cancer death (above vs. at or below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: multivariable-adjusted rate ratio, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.07 to 2.451; multivariable-adjusted rate difference, 1.7 [CI, -0.1 to 3.51 deaths per >= 1000 person-years), and the association seemed to be related to calcium intake from supplements 000 mg/d vs. no use: multivariable- adjusted rate ratio, 1.53 [CI, 1.04 to 2.25]; multivariable-adjusted rate difference, 1.5 [CI, -0.1 to 3.1] deaths per 1000 person-years) rather than foods. Limitations: Results from observational data may be affected by residual confounding. Reporting of dietary supplement use is subject to recall bias. Conclusion: Use of dietary supplements is not associated with mortality benefits among U.S. adults. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.
Background: Although consumption of tea at high-temperatures has been suggested as a risk factor for esophageal cancer, an association has not been observed consistently, and whether any relationship is independent of alcohol and tobacco exposure has not been evaluated. Objective: To examine whether high-temperature tea drinking, along with the established risk factors of alcohol consumption and smoking, is associated with esophageal cancer risk. Design: China Kadoorie Biobank, a prospective cohort study established during 2004 to 2008. Setting: 10 areas across China. Participants: 456 155 persons aged 30 to 79 years. Those who had cancer at baseline or who reduced consumption of tea, alcohol, or tobacco before baseline were excluded. Measurements: The usual temperature at which tea was consumed, other tea consumption metrics, and lifestyle behaviors were self-reported once, at baseline. Outcome was esophageal cancer incidence up to 2015. Results: During a median follow-up of 9.2 years, 1731 incident esophageal cancer cases were documented. High-temperature tea drinking combined with either alcohol consumption or smoking was associated with a greater risk for esophageal cancer than hot tea drinking alone. Compared with participants who drank tea less than weekly and consumed fewer than 15 g of alcohol daily, those who drank burning-hot tea and 15 g or more of alcohol daily had the greatest risk for esophageal cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 5.00 [95% CI, 3.64 to 6.88]). Likewise, the HR for current smokers who drank burning-hot tea daily was 2.03 (CI, 1.55 to 2.67). Limitation: Tea consumption was self-reported once, at baseline, leading to potential nondifferential misclassification and attenuation of the association. Conclusion: Drinking tea at high temperatures is associated with an increased risk for esophageal cancer when combined with excessive alcohol or tobacco use.
Background: Many effects of statins on non-cardiovascular disease (non-CVD) outcomes have been reported. Purpose: To evaluate the quantity, validity, and credibility of evidence regarding associations between statins and non-CVD outcomes and the effects of statins on these outcomes. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE (English terms only, inception to 28 May 2018). Study Selection: Meta-analyses (published in English) of observational studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined non-CVD outcomes of statin intake. Data Extraction: Two investigators extracted data from meta-analyses and individual studies. Credibility assessments based on summary effect sizes from a random-effects model, between-study heterogeneity, 95% prediction interval, small-study effect, excess significance, and credibility ceilings were devised to classify evidence. Data Synthesis: This review explored 278 unique non-CVD outcomes from 112 meta-analyses of observational studies and 144 meta-analyses of RCTs. For observational studies, no convincing (class I) evidence, 2 highly suggestive (class II) associations (de-creased cancer mortality in patients with cancer and decreased exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), 21 suggestive (class III) associations, and 42 weak (class IV) associations were identified. One outcome from the RCTs (decreased all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease) attained a sufficient amount of evidence with no hints of bias. For adverse events, observational studies showed suggestive evidence that statins increase the risk for diabetes and myopathy. Among the RCTs, no statistically significant effects were found on myopathy, myalgia, or rhabdomyolysis. Limitations: Studies with relevant data and outcomes not included in the meta-analyses may have been missed. Credibility assessments relied on several assumptions and arbitrary thresholds. Conclusion: The absence of convincing evidence of an association between statins and non-CVD outcomes supports leaving the current recommendations unchanged.
Background: Current U. S. cervical cancer screening and management guidelines do not consider previous screening history, because data on multiple-round human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology "co-testing" have been unavailable. Objective: To measure cervical cancer risk in routine practice after successive negative screening co-tests at 3-year intervals. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Integrated health care system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California). Patients: 990 013 women who had 1 or more co-tests from 2003 to 2014. Measurements: 3-and 5-year cumulative detection of (risk for) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer (>= CIN3) in women with different numbers of negative co-tests, overall and within subgroups defined by previous co-test results or baseline age. Results: Five-year >= CIN3 risks decreased after each successive negative co-test screening round (0.098%, 0.052%, and 0.035%). Five-year >= CIN3 risks for an HPV-negative co-test, regardless of the cytology result, nearly matched the performance (reassurance) of a negative co-test for each successive round of screening (0.114%, 0.061%, and 0.041%). By comparison, >= CIN3 risks for the cytology-negative co-test, regardless of the HPV result, also decreased with each successive round, but 3-year risks were as high as 5-year risks after an HPV-negative co-test (0.199%, 0.065%, and 0.043%). No interval cervical cancer cases were diagnosed after the second negative co-test. Independently, >= CIN3 risks decreased with age. Length of previous screening interval did not influence future >= CIN3 risks. Limitation: Interval-censored observational data. Conclusion: After 1 or more negative cervical co-tests (or HPV tests), longer screening intervals (every 5 years or more) might be feasible and safe.
Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions to implant bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs) were designed to reduce the late thrombotic events that occur with metallic stents. Purpose: To estimate the incidence of scaffold thrombosis after BVS implantation and compare everolimus-eluting BVSs with everolimus-eluting metallic stents (EESs) in terms of safety and efficacy at mid-and long-term follow-up in adults who had a percutaneous coronary intervention. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, conference proceedings, and relevant Web sites from inception until 20 May 2017, without language restriction. Study Selection: 7 randomized trials and 38 observational studies (each with a minimum of 6 months and 100 patient-years of follow-up) in adults with coronary artery disease who had a BVS or an EES and reported scaffold or stent thrombosis (main outcome) or other secondary outcomes (such as death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization). Data Extraction: 2 reviewers independently extracted study data, rated study quality, and assessed strength of evidence. Data Synthesis: The pooled incidence of definite or probable scaffold thrombosis after BVS implantation was 1.8% (95% CI, 1.5% to 2.2%) at a median follow-up of 1 year (41 studies, 21 884 patients) and 0.8% (CI, 0.5% to 1.3%) beyond 1 year (14 studies, 4688 patients). Seven trials involving 5578 patients that directly compared BVSs with EESs showed an increased risk for definite or probable scaffold thrombosis (odds ratio [OR], 3.40 [CI, 2.01 to 5.76]) with BVSs at a median follow-up of 25 months. Increased risks were present at early (prominently subacute), late, and very late stages, and odds beyond 1 year were almost double those seen within 1 year. Bioresorbably vascular scaffolds increased risks for myocardial infarction (OR, 1.63 [CI, 1.26 to 2.10]), target lesion revascularization (OR, 1.31 [CI, 1.03 to 1.67]), and target lesion failure (OR, 1.37 [CI, 1.12 to 1.66]); the odds for these 3 end points also increased over time. The incidences of all-cause, cardiac, and noncardiac death and of target vessel and any revascularization did not differ. Limitation: Quality of observational studies was unclear, and some data were unpublished. Conclusion: Compared with EESs, BVSs increased the risks for scaffold thrombosis and other thrombotic events at mid-and long-term follow-up, and risks increased over time.
The quality of reporting practice guidelines is often poor, and there is no widely accepted guidance or standards for such reporting in health care. The international RIGHT (Reporting Items for practice Guidelines in HealThcare) Working Group was established to address this gap. The group followed an existing framework for developing guidelines for health research reporting and the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network approach. It developed a checklist and an explanation and elaboration statement. The RIGHT checklist includes 22 items that are considered essential for good reporting of practice guidelines: basic information (items 1 to 4), background (items 5 to 9), evidence (items 10 to 12), recommendations (items 13 to 15), review and quality assur-ance (items 16 and 17), funding and declaration and management of interests (items 18 and 19), and other information (items 20 to 22). The RIGHT checklist can assist developers in reporting guidelines, support journal editors and peer reviewers when considering guideline reports, and help health care practitioners understand and implement a guideline.