PurposeMesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) dysregulation occurs in up to 26% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) after epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. Capmatinib (INC280) is a potent and selective MET inhibitor with preclinical activity in combination with gefitinib in EGFR-mutant, MET-amplified/overexpressing models of acquired EGFR-TKI resistance. This phase Ib/II study investigated the safety and efficacy of capmatinib plus gefitinib in patients with EGFR-mutated, MET-dysregulated (amplified/overexpressing) NSCLC who experienced disease progression while receiving EGFR-TKI treatment.MethodsPatients in phase Ib received capmatinib 100- to 800-mg capsules once per day or 200- to 600-mg capsules or tablets twice per day, plus gefitinib 250 mg once per day. Patients in phase II received the recommended phase II dose. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1.ResultsSixty-one patients were treated in phase Ib, and 100 were treated in phase II. The recommended phase II dose was capmatinib 400 mg twice per day plus gefitinib 250 mg once per day. Preliminary clinical activity was observed, with an ORR across phase Ib/II of 27%. Increased activity was seen in patients with high MET-amplified tumors, with a phase II ORR of 47% in patients with a MET gene copy number 6. Across phases Ib and II, the most common drug-related adverse events were nausea (28%), peripheral edema (22%), decreased appetite (21%), and rash (20%); the most common drug-related grade 3/4 adverse events were increased amylase and lipase levels (both 6%). No significant drug-drug interactions between capmatinib and gefitinib were evident.ConclusionThis study, focused on a predominant EGFR-TKI resistance mechanism in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC, shows that the combination of capmatinib with gefitinib is a promising treatment for patients with EGFR-mutated, MET-dysregulated NSCLC, particularly MET-amplified disease.
PurposeThe contribution of adjuvant chemotherapy after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) remains controversial. Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is a potential biomarker of subclinical residual disease in NPC. In this prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, we used plasma EBV DNA to identify patients with NPC at a higher risk of relapse for adjuvant chemotherapy.Patients and MethodsEligible patients with histologically confirmed NPC of Union for International Cancer Control stage IIB to IVB, adequate organ function, and no locoregional disease or distant metastasis were screened by plasma EBV DNA at 6 to 8 weeks after radiotherapy (RT). Patients with undetectable plasma EBV DNA underwent standard surveillance. Patients with detectable plasma EBV DNA were randomly assigned to either adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine for six cycles (arm 1) or observation (arm 2). Patients were stratified for primary treatment (RT v CRT) and stage (II/III v IV). The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS).ResultsSeven hundred eighty-nine patients underwent EBV DNA screening. Plasma EBV DNA was undetectable in 573 (72.6%) and detectable in 216 (27.4%); 104 (13.2%) with detectable EBV DNA were randomly assigned to arms 1 (n = 52) and 2 (n = 52). After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, no significant difference was found in 5-year RFS rate between arms 1 and 2 (49.3% v 54.7%; P = .75; hazard ratio for relapse or death, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.89). The level of post-RT plasma EBV DNA correlated significantly with the hazards of locoregional failure, distant metastasis, and death.ConclusionIn patients with NPC with detectable post-RT plasma EBV DNA, adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine did not improve RFS. Post-RT plasma EBV DNA level should be incorporated as the selection factor in future clinical trials of adjuvant therapy in NPC.
Purpose Trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) was effective in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in a phase II Japanese trial. This regional trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of trifluridine/tipiracil in Asian patients with mCRC with or without exposure to biologic therapy. Patients and Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial was conducted at 30 sites in China, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. Patients >= 18 years old with histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum and known KRAS status who were refractory or intolerant to two or more prior chemotherapy regimens were enrolled. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (2: 1 ratio; minimization method) to receive trifluridine/tipiracil (twice per day orally; 5 days on and 2 days off for 2 weeks, followed by 14 days off per cycle) or placebo. The primary end point was overall survival (intent-to-treat population). Results Between October 16, 2013, and June 15, 2015, 406 patients were randomly assigned to receive trifluridine/tipiracil (n = 271) or placebo (n = 135). Risk of death was significantly lower in the trifluridine/tipiracil arm than in the placebo arm (hazard ratio for death, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.99; log-rank P =.035). Median overall survival was significantly longer in the trifluridine/tipiracil than in the placebo arm (7.8 months [ 95% CI, 7.1 to 8.8 months] v 7.1 months [95% CI, 5.9 to 8.2 months], respectively), for a median survival follow-up time of 13.8 months (95% CI, 13.1 to 15.3 months) compared with 13.4 months (95% CI, 11.6 to 17.3 months), respectively. The incidence of serious adverse events was similar between the arms (trifluridine/tipiracil, n = 63 [23.2%]; placebo, n = 32 [23.7%]). No treatment-related deaths were reported. Conclusion Trifluridine/tipiracil has a statistically significant survival benefit compared with placebo in Asian patients with mCRC refractory or intolerant to standard chemotherapies, regardless of exposure to biologic therapy. The safety profile is similar to previous reports. (C) 2017 by American Society of Clinical Oncology