PURPOSE To assess the benefits of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors as neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapies in locally advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a multicenter (17 centers in China), open-label, phase II, randomized controlled trial of erlotinib versus gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC chemotherapy) as neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy in patients with stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations in exon 19 or 21 (EMERGING). Patients received erlotinib 150 mg/d (neoadjuvant therapy, 42 days; adjuvant therapy, up to 12 months) or gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) plus cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) (neoadjuvant therapy, two cycles; adjuvant therapy, up to two cycles). Assessments were performed at 6 weeks and every 3 months postsurgery. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1; secondary end points were pathologic complete response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, safety, and tolerability. RESULTS Of 386 patients screened, 72 were randomly assigned to treatment (intention-to-treat population), and 71 were included in the safety analysis (one patient withdrew before treatment). The ORR for neoadjuvant erlotinib versus GC chemotherapy was 54.1% versus 34.3% (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% CI, 0.87 to 5.84; P = .092). No pathologic complete response was identified in either arm. Three (9.7%) of 31 patients and zero of 23 patients in the erlotinib and GC chemotherapy arms, respectively, had a major pathologic response. Median PFS was significantly longer with erlotinib (21.5 months) versus GC chemotherapy (11.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.67; P < .001). Observed adverse events reflected those most commonly seen with the two treatments. CONCLUSION The primary end point of ORR with 42 days of neoadjuvant erlotinib was not met, but the secondary end point PFS was significantly improved. (C) 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
PurposeHigh-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH) has a poor outcome after standard chemoimmunotherapy. We sought to understand the biologic underpinnings of HGBL-DH/TH with BCL2 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology through examination of gene expression.Patients and MethodsWe analyzed RNA sequencing data from 157 de novo germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCLs, including 25 with HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2, to define a gene expression signature that distinguishes HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2 from other GCB-DLBCLs. To assess the genetic, molecular, and phenotypic features associated with this signature, we analyzed targeted resequencing, whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and immunohistochemistry data.ResultsWe developed a 104-gene double-hit signature (DHITsig) that assigned 27% of GCB-DLBCLs to the DHITsig-positive group, with only one half harboring MYC and BCL2 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2). DHITsig-positive patients had inferior outcomes after rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone immunochemotherapy compared with DHITsig-negative patients (5-year time to progression rate, 57% and 81%, respectively; P < .001), irrespective of HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2 status. The prognostic value of DHITsig was confirmed in an independent validation cohort. DHITsig-positive tumors are biologically characterized by a putative non-light zone germinal center cell of origin and a distinct mutational landscape that comprises genes associated with chromatin modification. A new NanoString assay (DLBCL90) recapitulated the prognostic significance and RNA sequencing assignments. Validating the association with HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2, 11 of 25 DHITsig-positive-transformed follicular lymphomas were classified as HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2 compared with zero of 50 in the DHITsig-negative group. Furthermore, the DHITsig was shared with the majority of B-cell lymphomas with high-grade morphology tested.ConclusionWe have defined a clinically and biologically distinct subgroup of tumors within GCB-DLBCL characterized by a gene expression signature of HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2. This knowledge has been translated into an assay applicable to routinely available biopsy samples, which enables exploration of its utility to guide patient management.