Background: The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. Methods: This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. Results: The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 +/- 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 +/- 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with Group TP at 420.5 +/- 188.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 531.1 +/- 231.4 mL on postoperative day 3 and Group CT at 520.4 +/- 228.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 633.7 +/- 237.3 mL on postoperative day 3. Intravenous low-dose epinephrine exhibited a net anti-inflammatory activity in total knee arthroplasty and did not induce an obvious hypercoagulable status. Transfusion values were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in Group IV, but no significant differences were observed in the incidence of thromboembolic complications, wound score, range of motion, and HSS score among the 3 groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The combined administration of low-dose epinephrine and tranexamic acid demonstrated an increased effect in reducing perioperative blood loss and the inflammatory response compared with tranexamic acid alone, with no apparent increased incidence of thromboembolic and other complications.
Background: Several methods are commonly used to predict lower-limb-length discrepancy (LLD) on pelvic radiographs. It is not clear how the lower-limb length of patients with unilateral developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH) changes and whether a pelvic radiograph is reliable to predict LLD. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of LLD in patients with unilateral DDH by measuring full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. Methods: The radiographic data of all patients with unilateral DDH who met the inclusion criteria from March 2011 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. These data included femoral length, tibial length, skeletal limb length, and distance from the lesser trochanter to the tibial plafond. We also compared LLD between patients with Hartofilakidis type-II DDH and those with type III. Results: Sixty-seven patients (12 male and 55 female) were included. The tibial length, skeletal limb length, and lesser trochanter-tibial plafond distance were significantly greater (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, and p < 0.001, respectively) on the ipsilateral (DDH) side, compared with the contralateral side, in 51 patients (76%), 43 patients (64%), and 52 patients (78%), respectively, with the values on the ipsilateral side exceeding those on the contralateral side by an average of 4.6 mm (range, 0.4 to 17.5 mm), 7.0 mm (range, 0.3 to 21.1 mm), and 10.0 mm (range, 1.1 to 28.8 mm), respectively. The femoral length did not differ significantly between the 2 sides (p = 0.562). There was also no significant difference in LLD, femoral length, tibial length, skeletal limb length, or lesser trochanter-tibial plafond distance between patients with Hartofilakidis type II and those with type III (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with unilateral DDH, regardless of whether the hip dislocation is low or high, may present with LLD derived from both the femur and the tibia. This LLD includes a greater ipsilateral tibial length, skeletal limb length, and lesser trochanter-tibial plafond distance in most patients and an unpredictable femoral length. Using the lesser trochanter on pelvic radiographs to predict LLD is not reliable. The use of full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs for preoperative templating is advisable for this special group of patients.
Background: This study aimed to determine the difference between computer-assisted virtual surgical technology and 3dimensional (3D) printing technology in preoperative planning for proximal humeral fractures. Methods: Between February 2009 and October 2015, 131 patients with 3 and 4-part proximal humeral fractures were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the preoperative planning method: conventional (n = 53), virtual surgical (n = 46), and 3D printing (n = 32). Fracture characteristics and intraoperative realization of preoperative planning (reduction shape and implant choices) were evaluated. Postoperative functional outcomes were assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Constant-Murley, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scoring systems and shoulder range of motion; postoperative radiographic outcomes were assessed with respect to the loss of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) and loss of humeral head height (HHH). Results: Excellent sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for fracture characteristics were seen in all 3 groups. The correlations for NSA (p = 0.033) and HHH (p = 0.035) were higher in the virtual surgical group than in the 3D printing group. The lengths of the medial support screws in the actual choices were shorter than those in the preoperative plan for the 3D printing group, but a similar pattern was not seen in the virtual surgical group. Compared with the conventional method, the virtual surgical and 3D printing methods of preoperative planning resulted in shorter operative time, less blood loss, and fewer fluoroscopic images. The functional outcomes in both the 3D printing and virtual surgical groups were better than those in the conventional group. The virtual surgical method was faster than the 3D printing method, as suggested by a shorter time to surgery (2.5 compared with 4.6 days; p < 0.001), a shorter time for preoperative planning (30.4 compared with 262.4 minutes; p < 0.001), and a decreased duration of hospital stay (10.9 compared with 14.6 days; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The clinical outcomes in both the virtual surgical and 3D printing groups were better than those in the conventional group. However, computer-assisted virtual surgical technology is more convenient and efficient, considering the shorter time for preoperative planning. In addition, it has improved correlation with preoperative planning.
Background: Current guidelines recommend restrictive criteria for red blood-cell transfusion in most clinical settings. However, patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery may require distinct transfusion criteria since benefits and potential harm often vary considerably based on patient characteristics and surgical procedures. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, especially in important subgroups. Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials investigating restrictive (mostly a hemoglobin level of 8.0 g/dL or symptomatic anemia) versus liberal (mostly a hemoglobin level of 10.0 g/dL) transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. For the primary outcome of cardiovascular events, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to synthesize the evidence and to assess the effects in different subgroups according to patient characteristics (with versus without preexisting cardiovascular disease) and surgical procedures (hip fracture surgery versus elective arthroplasty). Results: Ten trials involving 3,968 participants who underwent hip or knee surgery were included. Mean participant age ranged from 68.7 to 86.9 years. Compared with liberal transfusion, restrictive transfusion increased the risk of cardiovascular events (8 trials; 3,618 participants; relative risk [RR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.98; p = 0.003; with no heterogeneity across all trials), irrespective of preexisting cardiovascular disease (p(interaction) = 0.63). In a subgroup analysis, the increase was observed in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.10; p = 0.02), but did not reach significance in those undergoing elective arthroplasty (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.44; p = 0.07). To minimize the bias caused by variations in transfusion threshold, we conducted an analysis that only included trials using 8.0 g/dL hemoglobin or symptomatic anemia as the threshold for restrictive transfusion and obtained identical results (6 trials; 2,872 participants; RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.08; p = 0.01; I-2 = 0%). The 2 arms did not differ with respect to the rates of all infections, 30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, wound infection, pulmonary infection (mainly pneumonia), and cerebrovascular accidents (mainly stroke). Conclusions: In patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, when compared with liberal transfusion, restrictive transfusion increases the risk of cardiovascular events irrespective of preexisting cardiovascular disease. Importantly, the increased risk was observed in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery but did not reach significance in those undergoing elective arthroplasty.
Background: Quality assessment of vascular anastomosis primarily depends on the experience of the treating surgeon. This highlights the need for an objective index. The main goal of our study was to establish a method of assessing the quality of vascular anastomosis in digit replantation. Methods: A total of 182 digits from 141 patients were included in this study. The patients underwent replantation of completely amputated digits between June 1, 2015, and February 1, 2017. Patency tests of arterial and venous anastomoses were conducted for each replantation and recorded on digital video at 1,000 frames per second. We divided the study into 2 phases. In phase I (103 digits from 80 patients), we investigated whether the refilling velocity ratio (RVR) was associated with replantation failure. In phase II (79 digits from 61 patients), we adopted the RVR as a guiding parameter during surgery and compared the replantation success rate with that of the historical control of phase I. Results: In phase I, ischemia time (>12 hours), arterial RVR (<0.4), and venous RVR sum (<1.0) were significantly associated with the rate of replantation failure in 82 cases with single arterial anastomosis. In phase II, we set the arterial RVR goal to 0.4 and venous RVR sum goal to 1.0. Under the guidance of the RVR test, the survival rate significantly increased compared with that of the historical control of phase I (96% versus 87%; p = 0.037). Conclusions: The patency test, with assistance of high-speed video recording, is a useful tool that can improve the success rate of digit replantation.
Background: The new simplified thumb ossification composite index (TOCI) based on ossification of the thumb epiphyses and adductor sesamoid has demonstrated simplicity, excellent reliability, and high accuracy for predicting skeletal maturity, comparable with the Sanders simplified skeletal maturity system (SSMS). It was our belief that, because the terminology of the SSMS system has been commonly used for skeletal maturity prediction in idiopathic scoliosis in publications over the past decade, the clinical applicability of the TOCI system would increase if the stages in the 2 systems were found to be interchangeable and highly correlated. Methods: Hand radiographs of 125 premenarchal girls with newly diagnosed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had been followed longitudinally until skeletal maturity were all scored with use of the Tanner-Whitehouse III (TW3) system (stages E through I), the TOCI, and the SSMS. The scores for the epiphyses of the ulnar 4 digits were compared with those for the thumb and correlated with the timing of peak height velocity. Correlations were analyzed with the chi-square test and Cramer V and Somers delta correlations. Results: Six hundred and forty-five hand radiographs (an average of 5 for each girl with idiopathic scoliosis) and 11,517 epiphyses were scored. The rate of concordance between TW3 stages F, G, and I for the thumb proximal phalangeal epiphysis and those for all of the epiphyses of the ulnar 4 digits were 72.5%, 72.5%, and 89.9%, respectively. The overall concordance rate (including all epiphyses) was 71.3%, with a very high Cramer V correlation and significance (p < 0.01). High interchangeability was demonstrated for the TOCI and SSMS stages, supported by a high Somers delta correlation (>0.8) with significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The TOCI is highly practical for clinical use, and its stages are highly interchangeable with those of the SSMS.
Background: Prescription of opioid analgesics is currently a common practice to relieve pain for musculoskeletal injuries in many regions of the world, especially in the United States and Canada. However, overprescription may underlie opioid misuse. Details on the utilization of prescribed opioids after nonoperative treatment of fractures and dislocations and whether consumption is related to injury location are unknown. Methods: A total of 1,513 consecutive patients in China who underwent nonoperative treatment of a fracture and/or dislocation and who were prescribed opioids were studied over a 3-month period. Demographic information, alcohol consumption, smoking status, injury location, volume of prescription, and consumption patterns were recorded and were summarized. Results: The mean number of opioid pills prescribed was 14.7, and the mean patient-reported number of pills consumed was 7.2. Overall, 152 patients (10.0%) reported taking no prescribed opioid analgesics, and 924 patients (61.1%) ceased their prescribed opioids prior to completing the regimen. Injury location, alcohol consumption, and type of fracture or dislocation were all significantly associated with the patient-reported number of opioid pills consumed (p < 0.05). Patients with fracture and/or dislocation of the wrist or forearm (9.4 pills for 3.8 days); ankle, tibia, or fibula (9.3 pills for 3.7 days); or elbow or humerus (9.1 pills for 3.7 days) used more opioid pills compared with patients with injuries at other locations (not exceeding 6.4 pills and 3 days). When compared with patients who had no, low, or moderate daily alcohol consumption, there was more opioid use in patients with high daily alcohol consumption (8.5 pills for 3.4 days) and those with very high daily alcohol consumption (11.3 pills for 4.7 days). Patients with a dislocation and/or displaced fracture reported consuming 8.2 pills for 3.3 days, which was more than the consumption in patients with a nondisplaced fracture (6.2 pills for 2.5 days) and patients with an avulsion fracture (6.2 pills for 2.5 days). Conclusions: Surgeons and patients should try to avoid opioids if possible after nonoperatively treated fractures and dislocations. If opioids are used, surgeons should prescribe the smallest dose for the shortest time after considering the injury location and type of fracture or dislocation.
Background: Orthopaedic surgeons must play an important role in the secondary prevention of fragility fractures; however, some surgeons are more aware than others of their responsibility regarding fracture prevention. The purpose of the present study was to identify which factors can lead to a higher sensitivity for fracture prevention. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to orthopaedic surgeons via online invitation or at academic conferences in China from July through October 2015. A total of 452 surgeons responded. As the primary outcome measure, we created a sensitivity scoring system for fracture prevention based on the respondents' answers to 5 questions regarding behavior in the following areas: risk-factor evaluation, pharmacologic therapy, nonpharmacologic therapy, patient education, and follow-up. Multivariable linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors related to surgeon sensitivity to fracture prevention. Results: Very few surgeons reported having received adequate training regarding fracture prevention or reading guidelines or other fracture prevention literature (22% and 30%, respectively). Most respondents initiated pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic therapy (82% and 75%, respectively) for the treatment of confirmed osteoporosis among patients with fragility fractures, but only half performed a risk-factor evaluation, patient education, or timely patient follow-up (51%, 52%, and 48%, respectively). In the multivariable linear regression model, the orthopaedic surgeon's age (beta = 0.09, p = 0.003), self-rated knowledge level regarding osteoporosis or related issues (beta = 0.16, p < 0.001), self-perceived effectiveness in using preventive measures for patients with a fragility fracture (beta = 0.62, p < 0.001), and use of clinical pathways for fragility fractures in his or her workplace (beta = 1.24, p < 0.001) were independently associated with sensitivity scores for fracture prevention. Similar results were obtained from a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions: In China, the sensitivity of orthopaedic surgeons to the secondary prevention of fragility fractures is relatively low. Implementation of a comprehensive prevention approach and targeted continuing medical education are required to encourage surgeons to take greater responsibility for screening, treating, educating, and following their patients with fragility fractures.
Background: Hoffa fractures, coronal-plane fractures involving the distal femoral condyles, are unstable, intra-articular fractures. The aim of this study was to define the location and frequency of fracture lines and comminution zones in Hoffa fractures using computed tomography (CT) mapping in both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional contexts. Methods: Seventy-five Hoffa fractures (OTA/AO types 33B3.2 and 33B3.3) were retrospectively reviewed. The directions of fracture lines were characterized in the axial and sagittal CT planes. CT images for all fractures were superimposed on one another and oriented to fit a standard template. Mapping of fracture lines and comminution zones in both the axial and sagittal planes was performed. A 3-dimensional map was created by reducing reconstructed fracture fragments to fit to a model of the distal aspect of the femur. Results: This study included 1 bicondylar and 74 unicondylar (26 medial and 48 lateral) Hoffa fractures. Comminuted fractures accounted for 35.5% of all fractures and 44.9% of lateral fractures. Axial fracture mapping demonstrated that fracture lines were concentrated in the middle-third area of the lateral condyle but were less concentrated and with greater variation in the medial condyle. The mean angle of fracture lines with respect to the posterior condylar axis was 34.4 degrees and 29.0 degrees in the lateral and medial femoral condyles, respectively. Sagittal fracture mapping also demonstrated that fracture lines were concentrated in the middle third of the lateral condyle but were less concentrated in the medial condyle. The mean angle of fracture lines with respect to the posterior cortex of the distal femoral shaft was 23.1 degrees and 19.3 degrees in the lateral and medial condyles, respectively. Three-dimensional mapping demonstrated comminution zones commonly occurring in the weight-bearing zone of the lateral condylar articular surface. Conclusions: Hoffa fractures occurred more frequently in the lateral femoral condyle. In the axial plane, fractures commonly extended from anterolateral to posteromedial in the lateral condyle and from anteromedial to posterolateral in the medial femoral condyle. In the sagittal plane, fractures traversed from anteroinferior to posterosuperior. Articular comminution was more commonly seen in lateral condylar fractures and concentrated in the weight-bearing zone of the articular surface.
Background: Modic changes (inflammatory-like changes visible on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans of a vertebral end plate) are common and are associated with low back pain, but their origin is unclear. To our knowledge, there have been no previous in vivo animal models of Modic changes. We hypothesized that Modic changes may be related to Propionibacterium acnes. Methods: Ten New Zealand White rabbits were injected percutaneously with 1 mL of P. acnes (1.6 x 10(7) colony forming units/mL) into the subchondral bone superior to the L4-L5 and L5-L6 discs; 10 other control rabbits received sham injections at L4-L5 and 1 mL of normal saline solution (vehicle) at L5-L6. The subchondral bone superior to L3-L4 discs was untreated (blank). Development of Modic changes was investigated with MRI studies before the operation and at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Following sacrifice of the rabbits, histological analysis and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were performed, and blood samples were analyzed. Cytokine expression in end-plate tissues was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The group that received P. acnes showed significantly increased T1-weighted signal intensity at 6 months (mean and standard deviation, 3.43 +/- 0.41 [range, 2.42 to 4.44] compared with 2.43 +/- 0.66 [range, 1.98 to 2.87] before the injection) and higher T2-weighted signal intensity at 6 months. Positive culture results were obtained from 9 of 20 samples injected with P. acnes. Specimens with positive cultures had a higher prevalence of Modic changes (4 of 9 samples positive for P. acnes compared with 3 of 11 samples negative for P. acnes). Real-time PCR showed significantly increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interferon-g following injection of P. acnes, but no changes were seen on histological analysis, micro-CT, or blood analysis. Conclusions: P. acnes can survive within the end-plate region and can initiate mild inflammatory-like responses from host cells, leading to signal intensity changes in MRI scans, which potentially resemble Modic changes. Clinical Relevance: Disc degeneration and low back pain are associated with Modic changes. Our results indicate that Modic changes can be associated with P. acnes in the conjunction area of the disc and subchondral bone. These results may be useful for understanding the underlying mechanisms of Modic changes and related pain.
Background: Hemophilic pseudotumor (HPT) is a rare disease with many challenges. Only a few reports on surgical treatment for HPT have been published. Methods: The cases of 23 patients with HPT who had surgical treatment from July 1996 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, blood loss and transfusion during surgery, outcomes, and complications after surgery were analyzed. Results: Eleven patients underwent HPT resection; 4 underwent HPT excision, allograft transplantation, and absorbable screw fixation; 3 had HPT resection and metallic internal fixation; 2 had HPT resection, autogenous fibular grafting, and absorbable screw fixation; 2 underwent curettage and bone-grafting; and 1 patient received above-the-knee amputation. The average age (and standard deviation) of the patients at the time of surgery was 31.9 +/- 12.8 years (range, 6 to 54 years) with an average follow-up of 5.3 +/- 4.7 years (range, 1.1 to 19.6 years). The median duration of the surgery was 157 minutes (range, 90 to 315 minutes). The median amount of blood loss during surgery was 800 mL (range, 100 to 4,000 mL). Three patients (13%) had a postoperative infection, 2 (8.7%) had recurrence of HPT, and another 2 patients had fracture nonunion. Conclusions: Surgical treatment of HPT with a modified protocol of coagulation factor replacement is safe and effective. It should be recommended for patients with HPT who have progressive enlargement of the mass, recurrent and massive bleeding, spontaneous perforation, bone erosion, or compression of surrounding tissues or who have had failure of conservative treatment.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) morphological features of the true acetabulum in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Methods: Seventy-nine hips-53 in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and 36 normal hips-were included in the present study. According to the Crowe classification, 26 hips were graded as Class I, 31 were Class II or III, and 22 were Class IV. The anterior pelvic plane was defined to standardize the measurements in the study. A selected virtual cup component was implanted into the true acetabulum of a 3D pelvic model of each hip. The acetabular anteversion angle, effective center-edge (CE) angle, effective Sharp angle, and thickness of the medial wall were measured to provide morphological indices of the true acetabulum. Acetabular sector angles and the component coverage ratio were measured to provide coverage indices. Results: The acetabular anteversion angle increased with the severity of the DDH. Crowe-II/III hips had the smallest effective CE angle and the largest effective Sharp angle. The mean medial wall thickness was greatest in the Crowe-II/III hips (8.72 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.52 to 9.92 mm), intermediate in the Crowe-I hips (7.17 mm; 95% CI = 6.24 to 8.11 mm), and smallest in the Crowe-IV hips (6.05 mm; 95% CI = 4.78 to 7.32 mm). The integrated coverage ratio of the Crowe-II/III hips was significantly less than that of the Crowe-I and IV hips. Conclusions: The morphological features of the true acetabulum in patients with DDH can be evaluated comprehensively by using 3D implantation simulation. Segmental bone deficiency was prevalent in the dysplastic hips, especially those in the Crowe-II/III group. Both the severity and the individual morphology of the acetabular dysplasia should be carefully considered in preoperative planning.
Background: Accurate skeletal maturity assessment is important to guide clinical evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis, but commonly used methods are inadequate or too complex for rapid clinical use. The objective of the study was to propose a new simplified staging method, called the thumb ossification composite index (TOCI), based on the ossification pattern of the 2 thumb epiphyses and the adductor sesamoid bone; to determine its accuracy in predicting skeletal maturation when compared with the Sanders simplified skeletal maturity system (SSMS); and to validate its interrater and intrarater reliability. Methods: Hand radiographs of 125 girls, acquired when they were newly diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis prior to menarche and during longitudinal follow-up until skeletal maturity (a minimum of 4 years), were scored with the TOCI and SSMS. These scores were compared with digital skeletal age (DSA) and radius, ulna, and small hand bones (RUS) scores; anthropometric data; peak height velocity; and growth-remaining profiles. Correlations were analyzed with the chi-square test, Spearman and Cramer V correlation methods, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Reliability analysis using the intraclass correlation (ICC) was conducted. Results: Six hundred and forty-five hand radiographs (average, 5 of each girl) were scored. The TOCI staging system was highly correlated with the DSA and RUS scores (r = 0.93 and 0.92, p < 0.01). The mean peak height velocity (and standard deviation) was 7.43 +/- 1.45 cm/yr and occurred at a mean age of 11.9 +/- 0.86 years, with 70.1% and 51.4% of the subjects attaining their peak height velocity at TOCI stage 5 and SSMS stage 3, respectively. The 2 systems predicted peak height velocity with comparable accuracy, with a strong Cramer V association (0.526 and 0.466, respectively; p < 0.01) and similar sensitivity and specificity on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The mean age at menarche was 12.57 +/- 1.12 years, withmenarche occurring over several stages in both the TOCI and the SSMS. The growth remaining predicted by TOCI stage 8 matched well with that predicted by SSMS stage 7, with a mean of < 2 cm/yr of growth potential over amean of < 1.7 years at these stages. The TOCI also demonstrated excellent reliability, with an overall ICC of > 0.97. Conclusions: The new proposed TOCI could provide a simplified staging system for the assessment of skeletal maturity of subjects with idiopathic scoliosis. The index needs to be subjected to further multicenter validation in different ethnic groups.
Background: The 3-dimensional nature of adult acquired flatfoot deformity can be challenging to characterize using radiographs. We tested the hypothesis that measurements on weight-bearing (WB) cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images were more useful for demonstrating the severity of the deformity than non-weight-bearing (NWB) measurements. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 12 men and 8 women (mean age, 52 years; range, 20 to 88 years) with flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity. The subjects underwent cone-beam CT while standing (WB) and seated (NWB), and images were assessed in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes by 3 independent observers who performed multiple measurements. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were assessed with the Pearson or Spearman correlation and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. Measurements were compared using paired Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We found that overall the measurements had substantial intraobserver and interobserver reliability on both the NWB images (mean ICC, 0.80; range, 0.49 to 0.99) and the WB images (mean ICC, 0.81; range, 0.39 to 0.99). Eighteen of 19 measurements differed between WB and NWB cone-beam CT images, with more pronounced deformities on the WB images. The most reliable measurements, based on intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities and the difference between WB and NWB images, were the medial cuneiform-to-floor distance, which averaged 29 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28 to 31 mm) on the NWB images and 18 mm (95% CI = 17 to 19 mm) on the WB images, and the forefoot arch angle (mean, 13 degrees [95% CI = 12 degrees to 15 degrees] and 3.0 degrees [95% CI = 1.4 degrees to 4.6 degrees], respectively) in the coronal view and the cuboid-to-floor distance (mean, 22 mm [95% CI = 21 to 23 mm] and 17 mm [95% CI = 16 to 18 mm], respectively) and the navicular-to-floor distance (mean, 38mm[95% CI = 36 to 40mm] and 23mm[95% CI = 22 to 25mm], respectively) in the sagittal view. Conclusions: Measurements analogous to traditional radiographic parameters of adult acquired flatfoot deformity are obtainable using high-resolution cone-beam CT. Compared with NWB images, WB images better demonstrated the severity of osseous derangement in patients with flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity.
Background: Patients with spinal metastasis from cancer of unknown primary origin have limited life expectancy and poor quality of life. Surgery and radiation therapy remain the main treatment options, but, to our knowledge, there are limited data concerning quality-of-life improvement after surgery and radiation therapy and even fewer data on whether surgical intervention would affect quality of life. Methods: Patients were enrolled between January 2009 and January 2014 at the Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The quality of life of 2 patient groups (one group that underwent surgery followed by postoperative radiation therapy and one group that underwent radiation therapy only) was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire during a 6-month period. A subgroup analysis of quality of life was performed to compare different surgical strategies in the surgical group. Results: A total of 287 patients, including 191 patients in the group that underwent surgery and 96 patients in the group that underwent radiation therapy only, were enrolled in the prospective study; 177 patients completed all 5 checkpoints and 110 patients had died by the final checkpoint. The surgery group had significantly higher adjusted quality-of-life scores than the radiation therapy group in each domain of the FACT-G questionnaire (all p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that adjusted functional and physical well-being scores were higher in the circumferential surgical decompression group. Conclusions: Surgery followed by postoperative radiation therapy improved and maintained quality of life in patients with spinal metastasis from cancer of unknown primary origin in the 6-month assessment. In terms of surgical strategies, circumferential decompression seems better than laminectomy alone in quality-of-life improvement.