Objective: Previous studies compared the predictive ability of the European Treatment Outcome Study (EUTOS), Sokal, and Hasford scoring systems and demonstrated inconsistent findings with unknown reasons. This study was conducted to determine a useful scoring system to predict the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and identify the probable factors that affect the scoring. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. The predictive ability of EUTOS and the factors that affect scoring were analyzed in 234 Chinese chronic-phase CML patients treated with frontline imatinib, including a few patients temporarily administered hydroxyurea for cytoreduction before imatinib. Patients were stratified into different risk groups according to each scoring system to assess the treatment outcomes and the predictive ability of EUTOS scores between patients who received imatinib during the entire followup period and patients who received altered treatment because of intolerance, progression, and treatment failure. Results: Sixty-one (26.0%) patients received altered treatments during the follow-up. In the EUTOS low-and high-risk groups, the 5-year overall survival was 94.6% and 84.7% (p=0.011), 5-year eventfree survival was 92.6% and 77.6% (p=0.001), and 5-year progressionfree survival (PFS) was 95.3% and 82.4% (p=0.001), respectively. The predictive ability of EUTOS was better than that of the Sokal and Hasford scores (p= 0.256, p= 0.062, p=0.073) without statistical significance. All three scoring systems were valid in predicting early optimal response. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a high association between overall PFS and the EUTOS scores in the standard-dose imatinib group (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that the EUTOS scoring system could predict the outcome of chronic-phase CML patients treated with standard-dose imatinib. Altered treatment is a crucial factor that affects the prognostic impact of EUTOS scoring. Achieving complete cytogenetic response at 18 months is an essential factor in predicting the prognosis of patients with CML.
Objective: Hidden blood loss (HBL), commonly seen after total knee or hip arthroplasty, causes postoperative anemia even after reinfusion or blood transfusion based on the visible blood loss volume. Recent studies demonstrated that oxidative stress might be involved in HBL. However, whether the antioxidants proanthocyanidin (PA) or hydrogen water (HW) can ameliorate HBL remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PA and HW on HBL. Materials and Methods: A rat HBL model was established through administration of linoleic acid with or without treatment with PA or HW. The levels of hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ferryl Hb were measured. Results: RBC and Hb values as well as the activity of SOD and GSH-PX were reduced after administration of linoleic acid, which was ameliorated by treatment with PA or HW. In addition, the quantity of MDA was significantly decreased with the administration of PA or HW. Conclusion: PA and HW could ameliorate HBL in a rat model by reducing oxidative stress, suggesting that they might be used as a novel therapeutic approach in the prophylaxis or treatment of HBL in clinics.
Objective: Although Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the risk factors for CMV reactivation and treatment failure in CMV endemic areas have remained unclear. This study investigated the risk factors for CMV reactivation among allo-HSCT recipients in an area where CMV is highly endemic. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 82 allo-HSCT recipients from a CMV endemic area were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were stratified into two groups: those with CMV reactivation (n=32) and those without CMV reactivation (n=50). We investigated possible variables associated with CMV reactivation and treatment failure. Results: Univariate analyses showed that non-remission disease status [hazard ratio (HR): 2.15; p=0.032] and >= grade III acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR: 3.07; p=0.002) were associated with CMV reactivation. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that older age (HR: 1.03; p=0.029) and >= grade III acute GVHD (HR: 2.98; p=0.012) were associated with CMV reactivation. Overall survival time seemed lower among patients with CMV reactivation than among patients without CMV reactivation, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.165). The absence of >= grade III acute GVHD was associated with successful CMV treatment in the current study (odds ratio: 4.40; p=0.008). Conclusion: Prophylactic anti-CMV therapy might need to be considered for allo-HSCT recipients who have >= grade III GVHD.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of monosomal karyotypes (MKs) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 498 patients with AML, of whom 233 (46.8%) had an abnormal karyotype, including 42 with MKs (8.4%) and 70 with a complex karyotype (CK) (14.1%). Results: Patients with MKs were older (median age 62.5 vs. 52 years, p=0.003) and had lower median hemoglobin levels (62.5 vs. 77 g/L, p=0.009) and lower white blood cell counts (7.0x10(9)/L vs. 11.7x10(9)/L, p=0.008). Univariate analysis showed that patients with MKs or CKs had shorter overall survival than patients without these karyotypes (median survival time 7.3 vs. 26.3 months for MK, p<0.001, and 14.8 vs. 26.3 months for CK, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis for overall survival, MK and National Comprehensive Cancer Network prognostic group were the only significant factors. Conclusion: MK is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in AML patients.
Objective: As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. Materials and Methods: There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Results: Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Conclusion: Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.