Background Registry studies in high-income countries have defined contemporary management of heart failure (HF), but few such data exist in the large aging population of China. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of the Heart Failure Registry of Patient Outcomes (HERO) study, undertaken to determine evidence-practice gaps in the management of HF in a broad and representative population of China. Methods and results The HERO study is a prospective, longitudinal, seasonally-rotating, multicentre registry study of patients hospitalized with acute HF who are followed up over 12 months. Patients were recruited on the basis of primary admission clinical diagnosis of acute HF at 73 hospitals in Henan, the largest and most socio-economically diverse province in China, from November 2017 to November 2018; follow-up is ongoing. For each patient, data obtained through interview and medial record review by independent clinical research staff include: socio-demographics, clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and treatment, with a subset of patients providing blood samples for future biomarker investigation. Surviving patients are scheduled to be followed up by telephone at 2 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-admission, or until death or study withdrawal. A total of 5620 patients (mean age 72 +/- 12 years; 50% female) with acute HF were recruited from 8 provincial-, 22 municipal-, and 43 county-level hospitals. Patients had co-morbid hypertensive (48%), coronary (29%), or metabolic (20%) diseases. Among 3147 patients who had echocardiography, 54%, 20% and 25% of patients had ejection fraction of >= 50%, 40-50%, and < 40%, respectively. In-hospital or 3-day post-discharge mortality was 3.2% (182/5620). Death or readmission rate from the 4th day post-discharge to first follow-up (median 32 days) was 22.4% (977/4368). Conclusions The HERO study provides a unique opportunity to profile evidence-practice gaps across a broad spectrum of patients with acute HF in China.
Background Heart failure (HF) is a major health burden worldwide. However, there is no nationwide epidemiological data on HF in China after 2000. The aims of this study are (i) to determine the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and HF (with reduced, mid-range, and preserved ejection fraction) in a nationally representative Chinese population, and (ii) to investigate the treatment and control of hypertension in HF patients. Methods and results Data from the China Hypertension Survey (CHS) and 22 158 participants were eligible for analysis in this study. For each participant, a self-reported history of HF and any other cardiovascular diseases was acquired. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography was used to assess LV dysfunction. Overall, 1.3% (estimated 13.7 million) of the Chinese adult population aged >= 35 years had HF, 1.4% of participants had LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%), and 2.7% were graded as having 'moderate' or 'severe' LV diastolic dysfunction. The weighted prevalence of HF was similar between urban and rural residents (1.6% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.266), and between men and women (1.4% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.632). In addition, among HF patients with hypertension, 57.7% received antihypertensive medication, and 14.5% had their blood pressure controlled <140/90 mmHg. Conclusions In summary, there was an increase in the prevalence of HF, and LV dysfunction was very common in China. However, treatment and control of hypertension in participants with HF were low. Clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR-ECS-14004641.