Autophagy Promotes Porcine Parvovirus Replication and Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death in Porcine Placental Trophoblasts

Zhang, XJ; Xiong, YL; Zhang, J; Shao, T; Chen, SB; Miao, BC; Wang, ZY; Du, Q; Huang, Y; Tong, DW

Huang, Y; Tong, DW (corresponding author), Northwest A&F Univ, Coll Vet Med, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.

VIRUSES-BASEL, 2020; 12 (1):

Abstract

Autophagy plays important roles in the infection and pathogenesis of many viruses, yet the regulatory roles of autophagy in the process of porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection remain unclear. Herein, we show that PPV infection induces autophagy in porcine placental trophoblasts (PTCs). Induction of autophagy by rapamycin (RAPA) inhibited the occurrence of apoptotic cell death, yet promoted viral replication in PPV-infected cells; inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA or ATG5 knockdown increased cellular apoptosis and reduced PPV replication. Interestingly, we found that in the presence of caspase-inhibitor zVAD-fmk, PPV induces non-apoptotic cell death that was characterized by lysosomal damage and associated with autophagy. Induction of complete autophagy flux by RAPA markedly promoted PPV replication compared with incomplete autophagy induced by RAPA plus bafilomycin (RAPA/BAF) in the early phase of PPV infection (24 h.p.i.). Meanwhile, induction of complete autophagy with RAPA increased lysosomal damage and non-apoptotic cell death in the later phase of PPV infection. Therefore, our data suggest that autophagy can enhance PPV replication and promote the occurrence of lysosomal-damage-associated non-apoptotic cell death in PPV-infected porcine placental trophoblasts.

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