Cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of a novel nano-toxin formulation based on biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle loaded with recombinant truncated pseudomonas exotoxin A

Gholami, N; Cohan, RA; Razavi, A; Bigdeli, R; Dashbolaghi, A; Asgary, V

Razavi, A (reprint author), Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Immunol, Tehran 1417613151, Iran.; Asgary, V (reprint author), Javid Biotechnol Inst, Res & Dev Lab, Tehran 1315763395, Iran.



Bacterial toxins have received a great deal of attention in the development of antitumor agents. Currently, these protein toxins were used in the immunotoxins as a cancer therapy strategy. Despite the successful use of immunotoxins, immunotherapy strategies are still expensive and limited to hematologic malignancies. In the current study, for the first time, a nano-toxin comprised of truncated pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38) loaded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared and their cytotoxicity effect was investigated on human breast cancer cells. The PE38 protein was cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3), and purified using metal affinity chromatography and was analyzed by 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AgNPs were biologically prepared using cell-free supernatant of E. Coli K12 strain. Nanoparticle formation was characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The PE38 protein was loaded on AgNPs and prepared the PE38-AgNPs nano-toxin. Additionally, in vitro release indicated a partial slow release of toxin in about 100 hr. The nano-toxin exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells. Also, real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated the ability of nano-toxin to upregulate Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3, -8, -9, and P53 apoptotic genes in the MCF-7 tumor cells. Apoptosis induction was determined by Annexin-V/propidium flow cytometry and caspases activity assay after treatment of cancer cells with the nano-toxin. In general, in the current study, the nano-toxin exhibit an inhibitory effect on the viability of breast cancer cells through apoptosis, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as a delivery system for targeting of toxins to cancer cells.

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