Ivabradine possesses anticonvulsant and neuroprotective action in mice

Cavalcante, TMB; De Melo, JDA; Lopes, LB; Bessa, MC; Santos, JG; Vasconcelos, LC; Neto, AEV; Borges, LTN; Fonteles, MMF; Chaves, AJM; Macedo, D; Campos, AR; Aguiar, CCT; Vasconcelos, SMM

Vasconcelos, SMM (reprint author), Univ Fed Ceara, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Cel Nunes de Melo St 1000, BR-60431270 Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil.; Vasconcelos, SMM (reprint author), Univ Fed Ceara, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Cel Nunes de Melo St 1127, BR-60430



We analyzed whether ivabradine (IVA), a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker, clinically used for angina and arrhythmia, had anticonvulsant, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties against classical seizure models. Potential molecular targets to IVA anticonvulsant effects were evaluated by molecular docking. Mice were treated with IVA (1, 10 or 20 mg/kg, IP) for 3 days, and 30 min after the last administration were injected with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ - 85 mg/kg, IP), pilocarpine (PILO 400 mg/kg, SC), picrotoxin (PICRO 10 mg/kg, IP). The following measures were performed: presence of seizures, latency for the first seizure, latency for death, percentage of survival. Antioxidant activity was investigated by determination of lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and striatum (ST). Immunohistochemistry analysis for cleaved caspase-3, a pro-apoptotic and degenerative marker, in hippocampal subregions namely cornu ammonis (CA)1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), were also performed. IVA attenuated PTZ- and PICRO-induced seizures while presented an antioxidant effect in all brain areas studied. IVA markedly reduced cleaved caspase-3 expression in the CA1 and DG region of PICRO- and PTZ-treated mice, respectively. Molecular docking demonstrated that IVA has high energetic affinity and binding compatibility for GABA(A) receptor without causing channel obstruction. However, no reproducibility in the binding of IVA to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was detected. In conclusion, IVA has anticonvulsant, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects against PTZ- and PICRO-induced seizures. Also, a high affinity of IVA to GABA(A) receptor was predicted, representing a potential underlying mechanism to these observable effects.

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