Bladder cancer is a common and widespread cancer of the human urinary system, and its incidence is increasing. Gene therapy is a promising treatment of bladder cancer. In our study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV9-UPII-TK-EGFP) driven by a UPII promoter was constructed. The efficacy and safety of infection of bladder cells was tested in vivo and in vitro. The ability of rAAV9-UPII-TK-EGFP to penetrate the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer on the surface of bladder cells and to transduce the bladder cells in vivo was very high. Additionally, we confirmed that the TK/GCV system has a powerful cytotoxic effect on bladder tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our data indicate that rAAV9-UPII-TK-EGFP is a precise gene drug delivery system for the treatment of bladder cancer, and the TK/GCV therapeutic strategy has a powerful antitumor effect. These ?ndings can be widely used in clinical and scientific studies.