Estimating intrafraction tumor motion during fiducial-based liver stereotactic radiotherapy via an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm

Li, WZ; Liang, ZW; Cao, Y; Cao, TT; Quan, H; Yang, ZY; Li, Q; Dai, ZT

Dai, ZT (reprint author), Wuhan Univ, Sch Phys & Technol, Wuhan 430022, Hubei, Peoples R China.; Dai, ZT (reprint author), Chinese Acad Med Sci, Canc Hosp, Dept Radiat Oncol, Shenzhen Ctr, Shenzhen 518100, Guangdong, Peoples R China.



Background: Tumor motion may compromise the accuracy of liver stereotactic radiotherapy. In order to carry out a precise planning, estimating liver tumor motion during radiotherapy has received a lot of attention. Previous approach may have difficult to deal with image data corrupted by noise. The iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is widely used for estimating the rigid registration of three-dimensional point sets when these data were dense or corrupted. In the light of this, our study estimated the three-dimensional (3D) rigid motion of liver tumors during stereotactic liver radiotherapy using reconstructed 3D coordinates of fiducials based on the ICP algorithm. Methods: Four hundred ninety-five pairs of orthogonal kilovoltage (KV) images from the CyberKnife stereo imaging system for 12 patients were used in this study. For each pair of images, the 3D coordinates of fiducial markers inside the liver were calculated via geometric derivations. The 3D coordinates were used to calculate the real-time translational and rotational motion of liver tumors around three axes via an ICP algorithm. The residual error was also investigated both with and without rotational correction. Results: The translational shifts of liver tumors in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP),and superior-inferior (SI) directions were 2.92 +/- 1.98 mm, 5.54 +/- 3.12 mm, and 16.22 +/- 5.86 mm, respectively; the rotational angles in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were 3.95 degrees +/- 3.08 degrees, 4.93 degrees +/- 2.90 degrees, and 4.09 degrees +/- 1.99 degrees, respectively. Rotational correction decreased 3D fiducial displacement from 1.19 +/- 0.35 mm to 0.65 +/- 0.24 mm (P<0.001). Conclusions: The maximum translational movement occurred in the SI direction. Rotational correction decreased fiducial displacements and increased tumor tracking accuracy.

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