Aims To evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics of rongliflozin in a cohort of healthy Chinese people and people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and methods We examined the effects of a single ascending dose (SAD) of rongliflozin (10-200 mg) in combination with food (20 mg) in 50 healthy people, and a multiple ascending dose (MAD) of rongliflozin (10-50 mg once daily for 12 days) in 36 people with T2DM. Results No serious adverse events (AEs) or discontinuations as a result of AEs (related to rongliflozin) occurred in either study. In healthy participants and those with T2DM, rongliflozin was rapidly absorbed, with a time to maximum plasma concentration of 0.63 to 1.75 hours. Systemic exposure (maximum observed serum concentration and area under the curve) to rongliflozin and its inactive major metabolites (T1444, T1454 and T1830) increased in proportion to dose. In the SAD and MAD studies, there was a dose-related increase in urinary glucose excretion (UGE) ranging from 10 to 50 mg rongliflozin. This increase in UGE was associated with dose-related decreases in serum glucose values in people with T2DM in the MAD group. In the SAD group, UGE plateaued at 50 to 200 mg. Conclusions Rongliflozin was well tolerated in all participants. The PK and PD measurements obtained for rongliflozin demonstrate a dose-response relationship when the drug is administered at doses ranging from 10 to 50 mg in healthy people and in people with T2DM.