In recent years, a large number of studies have been carried out in the field of immune metabolism, highlighting the role of metabolic energy reprogramming in altering the function of immune cells. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells generated during a large array of pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and infection, and show remarkable ability to suppress T-cell responses. These cells can also change their metabolic pathways in response to various pathogen-derived or inflammatory signals. In this review, we focus on the roles of glucose, fatty acid (FA), and amino acid (AA) metabolism in the differentiation and function of MDSCs in the tumour microenvironment, highlighting their potential as targets to inhibit tumour growth and enhance tumour immune surveillance by the host. We further highlight the remaining gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms determining the plasticity of MDSCs in different environments and their specific responses in the tumour environment. Therefore, this review should motivate further research in the field of metabolomics to identify the metabolic pathways driving the enhancement of MDSCs in order to effectively target their ability to promote tumour development and progression.