The rat orthotopic liver transplantation model with extremely short anhepatic phase was established to study its protective effect on the recipients and graft. One hundred fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: group A (n = 30), using magnetic rings for the suprahepatic vena cava reconstruction; group B (n = 30), using 7/0 Prolene sutures for suprahepatic vena cava running anastomosis as control; and a sham-operated group (n = 30) as a blank control group. The changes in liver enzyme, serum creatinine, endotoxin, and cytokine levels and histopathology were recorded. The serum creatinine, potassium, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase levels at different points in time in group A were lower than those in group B (P < .05). The level of portal vein blood endotoxin in group A was significantly lower than that in group B at each point (P < .01). At the same time, all the cytokines in group B were higher than those in group A, and the two groups were higher than those in the sham operation group. The mean levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma, (IFN-gamma), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) at 3 hours were higher than at 6 hours in group A. IL-10 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were all higher at 3 hours in groups A and B. Levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, L-selectin, and TIMP-1 in group A and IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, L-selectin, and TIMP-1 in group B were higher in blood than in the liver. Levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1, IL-10, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in group A and TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma IL-1 beta, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in group B were higher in the liver than in blood. We conclude that the extremely short anhepatic phase has protective effects on recipients and grafts in rat liver transplantation because it is related to alleviating ischemia-reperfusion injury and reducing the endotoxin release.