Background & Aims: Circulating peptides and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have gained much attention because of their biofunctions in metabolic disorders including obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we aimed to characterize the role and therapeutic potential of a newly identified peptide hormone in NAFLD. Methods: Using bioinformatics, we identified a murine circulating pentadecapeptide flanked by potential convertase cleavage sites of osteocalcin (OCN), which we named 'metabolitin (MTL)'. We used ligand-receptor binding, receptor internalization, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and Nano isothermal titration calorimetry assays to study the binding relationship between MTL and GPRC6A. For in vivo biological studies, wild-type mice kept on a high-fat diet (HFD) were injected or gavaged with MTL to study its function in NAFLD. Results: We confirmed that MTL binds to GPRC6A and OCN interacts with GPRC6A using in vitro biological studies. Both intraperitoneal and oral administration of MTL greatly improved NAFLD and insulin resistance in a mouse model. Interacting with GPRC6A expressed in intestines, MTL can significantly inhibit intestinal neurotensin secretion, which in turn inhibits triglyceride but not cholesterol gut absorption, mediated by the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. In addition, glucagon like peptide-1 secretion was induced by MTL treatment. Conclusions: Oral or intraperitoneal MTL significantly improves the symptoms of NAFLD by inhibiting lipid absorption and insulin resistance. MTL could be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of NAFLD. Lay summary: A novel murine peptide hormone, herein named 'metabolitin', inhibits fatty acid absorption and improves systemic insulin resistance in a murine model of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, metabolitin has therapeutic potential for the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (c) 2020 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.