The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a sample of Chinese type 2 diabetic men. Between October 2016 and April 2017, male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated in our diabetes outpatient clinic were recruited in this study. The participants were asked to complete a short version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), which was a validated and self-administered questionnaire for the diagnosis and grading of ED severity. All patients screened for erectile function also underwent detailed physical examination, and interviewed for demographic and medical history. A total of 550 men were recruited in this study, of whom 20 patients were excluded and 35 did not complete all scheduled study procedures, leaving 495 patients in the final analysis. As determined by IIEF-5 score, 318 (64.2%) patients had ED. Among the 318 patients with ED, mild, mild-to-moderate, moderate, and severe were 37 (11.6%), 65 (20.4%), 95 (29.9%), and 121 (38.1%), respectively. The prevalence of ED in patients with high education, secondary education, and less than secondary education were 83.3%, 60.2%, and 35.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of ED was 64.2% in Chinese type 2 diabetic men. Increased age, longer duration of diabetes mellitus, and worse glycemic control may promote the progression of ED among Chinese type 2 diabetic men. We also found that the higher education levels may increase the risk of ED in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.