Liquid biopsy is indispensable for the resolution of current medical issues, such as the cost of developing new drugs and predicting responses of patients to drugs. In this sense, not only the technology for liquid biopsy but also the target biomolecules for biomarkers need to be identified. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain various proteins, including membrane-bound proteins, and RNAs, including mRNA and long/short noncoding RNAs, have emerged as ideal targets for liquid biopsy. These complex biomolecules are covered by a lipid bilayer, which can protect them from degradation. In this review, we review current topics regarding EVs as cancer biomarkers and introduce technologies used for these recently emerged biomolecules.