Background: Although alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is well known to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), prospective data on longitudinal increments in ALT activities and incident cases of MetS are limited. We analyzed the impact of longitudinal increments of ALT on MetS based on a health check-up population in China. Methods: A total of 4491 subjects free of MetS who completed at least two annual health examinations during March 2010 to April 2016 were enrolled in this cohort study. The MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement criteria 2009. The RRs of incident MetS were estimated by using the Cox model and the Joint model in R software. Results: The cumulative incidence of MetS was 18.55% during the 7 years of follow-up. In the Cox model, the estimated RR of developing MetS was 1.751 (95% CI =1.532-2.000) for 1 unit augmented in LNALT-0 level. In the Joint model, the estimated RR of developing MetS was 3.626 (95% CI = 2.721-4.831) for 1 unit augmented in LNALT activity longitudinally. Conclusions: The longitudinal increment of individuals' ALT activity over time increased the incidence risk of MetS and the effects generated by longitudinal increments of ALT on MetS was higher than that generated by baseline ALT.