Dietary Manganese, Plasma Markers of Inflammation, and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative

Gong, JH; Lo, KN; Liu, Q; Li, J; Lai, SQ; Shadyab, AH; Arcan, C; Snetselaar, L; Liu, SM

Liu, SM (corresponding author), Brown Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Providence, RI 02912 USA.; Liu, SM (corresponding author), Brown Univ, Ctr Global Cardiometab Hlth, Providence, RI 02912 USA.; Liu, SM (corresponding author), Brown Univ, Rhode Isl Hosp, Warren Alpert Med Sch, Hallett Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol, Providence, RI 02903 USA.

DIABETES CARE, 2020; 43 (6): 1344


OBJECTIVE To examine the association between manganese intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women and determine whether this association is mediated by circulating markers of inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included 84,285 postmenopausal women without a history of diabetes from the national Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Replication analysis was then conducted among 62,338 women who participated in the WHI-Clinical Trial (WHI-CT). Additionally, data from a case-control study of 3,749 women nested in the WHI-OS with information on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were examined using mediation analysis to determine the relative contributions of these known biomarkers by which manganese affects type 2 diabetes risk. RESULTS Compared with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted dietary manganese, WHI-OS participants in the highest quintile had a 30% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70 [95% CI 0.65, 0.76]). A consistent association was also confirmed in the WHI-CT (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.73, 0.85]). In the nested case-control study, higher energy-adjusted dietary manganese was associated with lower circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers that significantly mediated the association between dietary manganese and type 2 diabetes risk. Specifically, 19% and 12% of type 2 diabetes risk due to manganese were mediated through interleukin 6 and hs-CRP, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Higher intake of manganese was directly associated with a lower type 2 diabetes risk independent of known risk factors. This association may be partially mediated by inflammatory biomarkers.

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