2021 国际专家共识指南:老年人运动建议

2021-07-30 J Nutr Health Aging.2021;25(7):824-853.

人类衰老过程是普遍的、无处不在的和不可避免的。每一种生理功能都在不断减弱。两种不同的衰老表型之间存在一定范围,这取决于生活模式——经历和行为,特别是身体活动 (PA) 和有组织

中文标题:

2021 国际专家共识指南:老年人运动建议

英文标题:

International Exercise Recommendations in Older Adults (ICFSR): Expert Consensus Guidelines

发布机构:

发布日期:

2021-07-30

简要介绍:

人类衰老过程是普遍的、无处不在的和不可避免的。每一种生理功能都在不断减弱。两种不同的衰老表型之间存在一定范围,这取决于生活模式——经历和行为,特别是身体活动 (PA) 和有组织的锻炼(即久坐不动的生活方式)的存在与否。衰老和久坐的生活方式与肌肉功能和心肺健康的下降有关,导致进行日常活动和维持独立功能的能力受损。然而,在适当运动/体力活动的情况下,这些肌肉和有氧能力随年龄的变化会显着减弱。此外,结构化运动和整体 PA 作为许多慢性疾病的预防策略都发挥着重要作用,包括心血管疾病、中风、糖尿病、骨质疏松症和肥胖症;改善行动能力、心理健康和生活质量;和降低死亡率等好处。值得注意的是,运动干预计划改善了虚弱的特征(低体重、力量、活动能力、体力活动水平、能量)和认知,从而优化了衰老过程中的功能能力。在这些病理条件下,运动被用作治疗剂,并遵循确定疾病原因的规则,然后以循证剂量使用药物来消除或减轻疾病。因此,体力活动/结构化运动的处方应基于预期结果(例如,一级预防、改善健康或功能状态或疾病治疗),并像任何其他医学治疗一样进行个性化、调整和控制。此外,与其他治疗药物一样,运动表现出剂量反应效应,可以根据健康状况或医疗状况使用不同的方式、数量和/或强度进行个体化。重要的是,运动疗法通常同时针对多个生理系统,而不是像疾病管理的药理学方法那样针对单一结果。对于某些疾病,运动​​可以替代药物治疗(例如抑郁症),从而有助于实现停用潜在不适当药物 (PIMS) 的目标。在其他情况下,目前没有有效的药物治疗(如肌肉减少症或痴呆症),它可能在预防和治疗中发挥主要作用。因此,该共识声明为老年人使用运动和 PA 促进健康以及疾病预防和治疗提供了循证依据。运动处方是根据随机对照试验中研究的特定方式和剂量来讨论的,这些方式和剂量在减轻衰老、疾病预防和/或改善患有慢性疾病和残疾的老年人的生理变化方面的有效性。提出建议以弥补当前文献中的空白,并优化运动/PA 作为预防药物和治疗药物的使用。

 

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    2022-06-20 湘雅科教

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    2022-03-13 hua_yanfly

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    2022-01-21 ms9000000287361813

    感谢分享

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    2022-01-21 ms9000000287361813

    感谢分享

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