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Performance of the new 'Eurofever/PRINTO classification criteria' in FMF patients

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objective: Recently a new set of criteria proposed for the classification of auto inflammatory recurrent fevers including familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). We aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the new Eurofever/PRINTO classification criteria with those of the Tel Hashomer and Yalcinkaya-Ozen criteria. Methods: 151 consecutive FMF patients between February and May 2019 who were followed at Hacettepe University Department of Pediatric Rheumatology were included in this study. A group of 82 patients with periodic fever 66 periodic fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis and adenitis syndrome (PFAPA), nine cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and seven mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (MKD/HIDS) patients) served as controls. GraphPad 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Three different classification criteria were analyzed in 151 FMF patients with a median age at diagnosis of 5 years and in 82 controls with a median age at diagnosis of 3 years. The sensitivity of the new Eurofever/PRINTO criteria (96%) was highest (Tel Hashomer criteria-88.4% and Yalcinkaya-Ozen criteria-93.4%). However, the specificity of these criteria (73.1%) was lowest (Tel Hashomer criteria-92.6% and Yalcinkaya-Ozen criteria-84.1%). The new Eurofever/PRINTO criteria achieved the highest sensitivity (100%) in biallelic exon 10 mutation patients (Tel Hashomer criteria-87.4% and Yalcinkaya-Ozen criteria-94.2%). However, the new set had the lowest sensitivity (88.2%) in heterozygote exon 10 mutation patients (Tel Hashomer criteria 94.1% and Yalcinkaya-Ozen criteria 94.1%). Conclusion: In this Turkish cohort, the new Eurofever/PRINTO criteria have a better sensitivity but lower specificity with higher misclassifications than other two well-known criteria. The combination of clinical manifestations with genotype increased the sensitivity. The lower specificity may be due to the high carrier rate in our population. Although the ethnicity information lowers the specificity, 'clinical-only' criteria set may still guide the clinician to perform appropriate genetic testing in patients with recurrent fever. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Torque teno virus viremia in patients with chronic arthritis: Influence of biologic therapies

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objective: Torque teno virus (TTV) is a highly prevalent non-pathogenic anellovirus whose plasma levels may be a biomarker of immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific immune-targeting with different biologic drugs may differentially modulate TTV viremia in arthritis patients. Methods: TTV DNA load was quantified by PCR in a cross-sectional sample of 79 patients with chronic arthritis on biologic therapy (abatacept, infliximab, rituximab or tocilizumab), 31 patients treated with conventional DMARD5 (methotrexate and/or leflunomide), and 54 healthy individuals. Longitudinal changes in TTV load were analysed in a second group of 59 patients at baseline and 4-months after biologic therapy. Correlations between clinical or biological characteristics of recruited patients and TTV viremia were also analysed. Results: In the cross-sectional study, TTV load was significantly higher in patients who received abatacept, infliximab or tocilizumab compared to healthy individuals. Patients treated with rituximab or conventional DMARDs showed TTV loads similar to healthy controls. In the longitudinal study, an increase in the TTV load was observed after anti-TNF, tocilizumab, abatacept and rituximab, but not after secukinumab therapy. Correlations between TTV load and clinical variables such as disease duration, concomitant glucocorticoid or DMARD5 therapy, lymphocytes or previous infections were not found. A non-significant trend towards higher TIN load was observed in therapy responders. Conclusion: Patients with chronic arthritis on biologic but not on conventional DMARD or anti-IL17 therapy have increased TTV viremia. This observation provides a basis to prospectively explore the potential value of TTV load as a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

AA amyloidosis secondary to adult onset Still's disease: About 19 cases

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objective: Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by high spiking fever, evanescent rash, polyarthritis, and many other systemic manifestations. Recurrent or persistent disease can lead to AA amyloidosis (AAA). Our objectives were to present 3 French cases and perform a systematic review of the literature, in order to determine the prevalence, characteristics, predisposing factors, and therapeutic response of AOSD-related AAA. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed by searching MEDLINE from 1971 to 2018. Two independent investigators selected reports of AAA complicating AOSD. New French cases were identified with the help of the Reference Center for rare Auto-Inflammatory Diseases and Amyloidosis (CEREMAIA). Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis were excluded. Results: The prevalence of AAA in AOSD was 0.88% (95%CI [0.49-1.28]) based on 45 articles. In addition to 3 new cases from the CEREMAIA, 16 patients were assessed for clinical presentation, risk factors, and therapeutic response of AOSD-related AAA. Mean age at AOSD onset was 29.6 +/- 12.6 years, with a mean delay before AAA diagnosis of 16.75 +/- 5.8 years. Renal involvement was the most common manifestation of AAA. The majority of patients presented active AOSD at AAA diagnosis. Various treatments of AOSD-related AAA were attempted including corticosteroids and biotherapies. Conclusion: AAA is a rare and severe complication that may occur during the course of uncontrolled active AOSD. It could be prevented by early diagnosis and better control of AOSD, with more frequent use of biotherapies. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Long-term outcomes in Juvenile Myositis patients

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objective: Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM) are rare, chronic autoimmune muscle diseases of childhood, with the potential for significant morbidity. Data on long-term outcomes is limited. In this study we investigate correlations between clinical and demographic features with long-term outcomes in a referral population of adult patients with JIIM. Methods: Forty-nine adults with JIIM were assessed at two referral centers between 1994 and 2016. Features of active disease and damage at a cross-sectional assessment were obtained. Regression modeling was used to examine factors associated with long-term outcomes, defined by the presence of calcinosis or a higher adjusted Myositis Damage Index (MDI) score. A multivariable model of MDI was constructed using factors that were statistically significant in bivariate models. Results: At a median of 11.5 [IQR 4.5-18.9] years following diagnosis, median American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class was 2 [1.5-3.0], Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score was 0.4 out of 3.0 [0.0-1.0], and manual muscle testing (MMT) score was 229 out of 260 [212.6-256.8]. Median MDI score was 6.0 [3.5-8.9], with the most commonly damaged organ systems being cutaneous and musculoskeletal. Factors associated with an elevated MDI score were the presence of erythroderma and other cutaneous manifestations, disease duration, and ACR functional class. Calcinosis was present in 55% of patients. The strongest predictors of calcinosis were disease duration, periungual capillary changes, and younger age at diagnosis. Conclusion: In a tertiary referral population, long-term functional outcomes of JIIM are generally favorable, with HAQ scores indicative of mild disability. Although most patients had mild disease activity and virtually all had significant disease damage, severe or systemic damage was rare. Certain clinical features are associated with long-term damage and calcinosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Sex hormones and sex hormone-targeting therapies in systemic sclerosis: A systematic literature review

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Background: The pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is complex and elusive, however, considering the strong female preponderance and different clinical characteristics between men and women, a contribution of sex hormones has been proposed. Objectives: We undertook this systematic literature review to investigate: (1) the role played by male and female sex hormones in the pathogenesis of SSc; (2) how sex hormone levels change in SSc patients and how hormonal variations modify the progression of SSc; (3) the effect of therapies targeting sex hormones on the disease course. Methods: A literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases. Given the heterogeneity in study design, different quality assessment tools were applied where appropriate. Results: We retrieved 300 articles and 30 were included in the review. The available evidence points to a fibrogenic, but also a vasodilatory, role of estrogens in SSc. With the limitation of small sample sizes, women with SSc tend to have lower levels of androgens and non-significantly higher levels of estradiol compared to healthy controls, while in men we found increased levels of estradiol and discordant results for androgens. After menopause the skin score seems to decrease and prevalence of pulmonary artery hypertension seems to rise, which might be prevented by the use of hormone replacement therapy. No recent high-quality trial evaluated the efficacy of hormone-targeting therapies in SSc. Conclusions: Few translational studies of varying quality evaluated the role of sex hormones in SSc showing possible profibrotic and vasodilatatory effects of estrogens, but more research is needed to elucidate the extent of this contribution. Insights on the influence of sex hormones, along with the availability of new compounds acting on estrogen pathways, might provide ideas for additional studies on the application of sex hormone-targeting therapies in SSc. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance imaging frequently detects subclinical diffuse myocardial fibrosis in systemic sclerosis patients

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objectives: cardiac involvement is the second most frequent systemic sclerosis (SSc) related cause of death. It remains mostly asymptomatic in the early stage and is underdiagnosed with routine screening. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) could improve cardiac assessment of patients and noteworthily, new sequences allow the detection of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) by native T1 mapping. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiac involvement by CMR native T1 mapping and its correlation with echocardiography data and non-cardiac manifestations in SSc patients. Methods: patients fulfilling the ACR/EULAR classification criteria for SSc were prospectively included between 2014 and 2016. They underwent CMR at 1.5T, including native T1 and T2 mapping, and Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) as a part of routine follow up. Routine biological tests (mainly BNP and CRP) were centralized in the hospital laboratory. Results: seventy-two unselected patients were included. Thirty six patients (50%) had elevated T1 (ET1) (mean T1 1097 +/- 14 ms). CMR cardiac functional parameters were similar in ET1 and normal T1 (NT1). Echocardiography was normal in 18 (50%) of ET1. ET1 and NT1 groups were similar for cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease. ET1 was not correlated with any clinical or echocardiographic parameter or antibody profile. Thirty-six percent of patients with ET1 had no cardiac symptoms, normal echocardiography and CMR LVEF, and no LGE. Conclusion: native T1 mapping detects left ventricular ET1 (potential DMF) in 50% of patients with SSc and a third of them had a normal conventional screening including standard CMR. In the future, further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of use of native T1 mapping as a part of routine follow up to detect earlier pejorative cardiac involvement in SSc patients. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prevalence and metric of depression and anxiety in systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objectives: To systematically review and synthesize literature on 1) the overall prevalence of depression and anxiety in SLE patients in identified studies, and 2) the pooled prevalence per metrics of depression and anxiety in adult SLE patients. Methods: This review used (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) PRISMA guidelines and in-depth searches in four databases (19542016; Ovid-based Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL) to identify articles on the prevalence of depression and/or anxiety in adult SLE patients. Included studies were critically appraised and analyzed. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was studied for all included studies, and whenever possible, pooled prevalence (PP) was determined for more commonly used metrics. Statistical and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Result: A total of 3103 references were identified, 226 were selected for detailed review and 72 were included in the final analysis. Overall Prevalence: The depression PP, obtained from 69 studies representing 23,386 SLE patients, was 35.0% (95% CI: 29.9%-40.3%). The anxiety PP, obtained from 38 studies representing 4439 SLE patients, was 25.8% (95% CI: 19.2%-32.9%). Prevalence per metrics used: The more commonly used instruments included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS-A/D), and Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression/Anxiety (HAM-D/A)]. The CES-D was utilized in 13 studies including 1856 SLE patients; depression PP was 41.5% (95% CI: 35.1%-48.1%). The BDI was utilized in 14 studies including 1355 SLE patients and the BAI in 3 studies including 489 patients; depression PP was 39.9% (95% CI: 31.1%-49.1) and anxiety PP was 38.4% (95% CI: 34.2%-42.8%). The HADS-D was utilized in 14 studies including 1238 SLE patients and the HADS-A in 12 studies including 1099 patients respectively; its depression PP was 24.4% (95% CI: 19.1%-30.1%) and anxiety PP was 38.3% (95% CI: 29.1%-47.9%). The HAM-D was utilized in 4 studies including 267 SLE patients and the HAM-A in 4 studies including 213 patients respectively; its depression PP was 40.0% (95% CI: 23.0%-59.0%) and anxiety PP was 39.0% (95% CI: 32.0%-45.0%). Conclusion: There was high variability in the prevalence of depression and anxiety, ranging from 8.7%-78.6% and 1.1%-71.4%, respectively. This could be attributed to the lack of consistency in the metrics used and its definition for depression and anxiety in SLE. Studies that used a specific metric, such as the CES-D, BDI or HAM-D, yielded similar depression prevalence. The HADS-D had the lowest prevalence. All metrics of anxiety yielded similar anxiety prevalence. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Socioeconomic status at diagnosis influences the incremental direct medical costs of systemic lupus erythematosus: A longitudinal population-based study

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objectives: To assess the incremental direct medical costs of a population-based cohort of incident systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for the first five years after diagnosis, and impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on such incremental costs. Methods: From the administrative health databases in British Columbia, Canada, we identified all adults with newly-diagnosed SLE from 1996 to 2010 and obtained a sample from the general non-SLE population matched on sex, age, and calendar-year. We captured costs for outpatient encounters, hospitalisations, and dispensed medications. Using two-part generalised linear models, we estimated per-person-year incremental costs of SLE (difference in costs between SLE and non-SLE, controlling for covariates) during the first five years after diagnosis, and assessed differences in incremental costs across SES groups. Results: We included 4679 newly-diagnosed SLE (86% identified from hospitalisations or rheumatologists) and 23,219 non-SLE individuals. Per-person direct costs for SLE in the first year after diagnosis averaged $13,038 (2013 Canadian), with 61% from hospitalisations, 23% from outpatient encounters, and 16% from medications; costs for non-SLE averaged $2,431. Following adjustment, incremental costs of SLE during the first five years after diagnosis averaged $10,078 per-person-year (95% CI=$2062-$32,254). Predicted incremental hospitalisation, outpatient, and medication costs were all significantly-greater for the low-SES patients versus high-SES (additional $1922 per-person-year in incremental costs for low-SES). Similar patterns were observed when restricting to those followed the full five-years after index date. Conclusion: Even in a single-payer, publicly-funded healthcare setting, low SES at SLE diagnosis was associated with significantly-greater direct medical costs for the management of SLE and associated complications. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Inpatient burden and association with comorbidities of polyarteritis nodosa: National Inpatient Sample 2014

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objectives: To characterize inpatient burden, expenditures and association with comorbidities of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Methods: Patients with PAN were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for the year 2014 using ICD-9 diagnostic codes. The primary outcome was determining the inpatient prevalence of PAN in hospitalized patients in the US. Secondary outcomes included determining inpatient mortality, morbidity, comorbidities, hospital length of stay (LOS) and total hospital costs and charges. A cohort of patients without PAN was also identified from the same database to serve as comparators for analysis of comorbidities. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidities and hospital characteristics. Results: A total of 4,110 patients with PAN were included in the study. The mean age was 59.5 years and 61% were female. The inpatient prevalence of PAN was 11.6 cases per 100,000 discharges. Patients with PAN displayed increased adjusted odds of mortality (OR:1.35, p = 0.13), shock (OR:1.75, p<0.01), ICU admission (OR:1.88, p<0.01) and multiorgan failure (OR:3.12, p<0.01) compared to patients without PAN. Patients with PAN also displayed significantly higher hospital costs (additional adjusted mean [aAM]: $9,693, p<0.01), hospitalization charges (aAM: $34,273, p<0.01) and LOS (aAM: 4.1 days, p<0.01) compared to patients without PAN. Analysis of comorbidities found a significant association between PAN and venous thromboembolism, renal injury and sepsis. The main limitation of this study was reliance on accuracy of diagnostic coding. The high inpatient prevalence of PAN might have been inflated and we cannot be certain that the higher risk of comorbidities and expenditures were entirely attributable to PAN as some patients in this cohort may have other vasculitides. Conclusions: The inpatient prevalence of PAN is higher than what would be expected from the overall general prevalence. Hospitalizations of patients with PAN are associated with significantly higher rates of morbidity and expenditures. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Efficacy and safety of leflunomide treatment in Takayasu arteritis: Case series from the East China cohort

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of leflunomide (LEF) as induction treatment in a series of Takayasu arteritis (TA) patients based on a Chinese cohort. Method: Fifty-six patients from the East China TA cohort treated with LEF for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study, including the naive LEF treatment patients (n = 41) and the cyclophosphamide (CYC)-resistant LEF treatment patients (n = 15). Data in clinical features, NIH score and angiography were collected. Response to treatment was assessed by rates of complete remission (CR) and partial remission (PR) and response rate (RR) after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Results: The total CR rate and RR were 67.86% and 83.93% after 6 months, and 55.36% and 69.64% after 12 months, respectively. ESR and CRP levels and NIH scores decreased significantly after 12 months of LEF treatment (P < 0.05). Patients of CYC-resistant switched to LEF and reached the CR of 60.00% (9/15) and RR of 86.67% (13/15) after 6 months, and 73.33% (11/15) and 80.00% (12/15) after 12 months, respectively, with decrease in NIH scores (all P < 0.05). After following up for 14.44 +/- 6.86 months, 48 patients (85.71%) continued LEF treatment with good tolerance. One patient died from progression of TA after 2 months, 2 patients relapsed, and 3 patients with side effects were switched to other immunosuppressive agents. Conclusions: LEF led to a quick induction and sustained remission of TA, especially in refractory cases, and therefore, should be considered as an alternative treatment for TA. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Radiologic evidence of symmetric and polyarticular monosodium urate crystal deposition in gout - A cluster pattern analysis of dual-energy CT

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objectives: To determine the clustering patterns of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition and bone erosions among patients with gout requiring urate-lowering therapy (ULT) using dual-energy CT (DECT). Methods: DECT scans of bilateral hands/wrists, feet/ankles, and knees were obtained on 153 patients with gout on allopurinol >= 300 mg daily for >= 3 months. Two radiologists assessed the images at pre-specified sites (15 in the hands/wrists, 12 in the feet/ankles, 4 in the knees). Clustering patterns of MSU crystal deposition and bone erosions were evaluated. Results: Among 153 patients with gout (mean duration, 15 years) on allopurinol (mean duration, 5 years), MSU crystal deposition (67%) affected multiple sites in the hands/wrists, feet/ankles, and knees more often than would be expected by chance (p<0.001 for all 3 regions). In the feet/ankles, bone erosions were also observed in a clustered manner (p<0.001). Presence of MSU crystal deposition at a particular joint was most strongly associated with symmetric involvement of the same joint of the opposite extremity in the hands/wrists, feet/ankles, and knees (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 26.1, 46.9, and 9.9, respectively). Similarly, presence of erosions in the feet/ankles was highly symmetric (adjusted OR 91.4). Erosions were 8-fold more likely to be present in sites with MSU crystal deposition compared to those without. Conclusion: Among patients with longstanding gout on ULT, MSU crystal deposition and bone erosions affect multiple joints within the hands/wrists, feet/ankles, and knees in a highly symmetric manner. These radiologic data support the notion of MSU crystal deposition in gout as a symmetric polyarthropathy. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Associations of lumbar scoliosis with presentation of suspected early axial spondyloarthritis

期刊: SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 2020; 50 (1)

Objective: Scoliosis may impact the mechanical loading and cause secondary changes of the sacroiliac joints and lumbar spine. Our goal was to look how lumbar scoliosis modify the clinical and imaging-study in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain (IBP) suggesting axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods: Baseline weight-bearing lumbar-spine radiographs obtained in the DESIR cohort of patients aged 18-50 years and having IBP for at least 3 months but less than 3 years suggesting axSpA were studied. After training on scoliosis detection based on Cobb's angle>10 degrees plus Nash-Moe grade >= 1, readers blinded to patient data measured spine lumbar scoliosis, sacral horizontal angle, lumbosacral angle and lumbar lordosis on the radiograph of the lumbar and scored sacroiliitis on the radiograph of the pelvis. Baseline MRIs T1 and STIR of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints were evaluated for respectively degenerative changes and signs of axSpA. Results: Of the 360 patients (50.8% females) 88.7% had lumbar pain and 69.3% met ASAS criteria for axSpA. Mean Cobb's angle was 3.2 degrees +/- 5.0 degrees and 28 (7.7%) patients had lumbar scoliosis. No statistical differences were observed for radiographic sacroiliitis, MRI sacroiliitis, modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score, Pfirmmann score, high-intensity zone, protrusion, extrusion, MODIC score between patients with and without scoliosis. In both groups, degenerative changes by MRI were rare and predominated at L4-L5 and L5-S1. Conclusion: In patients with early IBP suggesting axSpA, lumbar scoliosis was not associated with inflammatory or degenerative changes. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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