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Diarrhea Is Associated With Prolonged Symptoms and Viral Carriage in Corona Virus Disease 2019

期刊: CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 2020; 18 (8)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared clinical, laboratory, radiological, and outcome features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) with pneumonia, with vs without diarrhea. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis of 84 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan Union Hospital, China, from January 19 through February 7, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Blood samples were analyzed for white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and in some cases, immunoglobulins, complement, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines. Virus RNA was detected in stool samples by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 26 (31%) had diarrhea. The duration of fever and dyspnea in patients with diarrhea was significantly longer than those without diarrhea (all P <.05). Stool samples from a higher proportion of patients with diarrhea tested positive for virus RNA (69%) than from patients without diarrhea (17%) (P <.001). As of February 19, a lower proportion of patients with diarrhea had a negative result from the latest throat swab for SARS-CoV-2 (77%) than patients without diarrhea (97%) (P = .010), during these patients' hospitalization. Of 76 patients with a negative result from their latest throat swab test during hospitalization, a significantly higher proportion of patients with diarrhea had a positive result from the retest for SARS-CoV-2 in stool (45%) than patients without diarrhea (20%) (P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: At a single center in Wuhan, China, 31% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia had diarrhea. A significantly higher proportion of patients with diarrhea have virus RNA in stool than patients without diarrhea. Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 from stool takes longer than elimination from the nose and throat.

Higher Esophageal Symptom Burden in Obese Subjects Results From Increased Esophageal Acid Exposure and Not From Dysmotility

期刊: CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 2020; 18 (8)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal motor disorders (EMD) and pathologic reflux are often identified in obese individuals, but it is not clear how obesity contributes to these symptoms. We examined the relationships among symptom burden, EMD, acid exposure time (AET), symptom association probability, and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1089 consecutive patients who underwent high-resolution manometry, of which 426 patients also underwent reflux monitoring off acid suppression, over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center. Symptom burden was assessed by questionnaires to determine dominant symptom intensity (DSI; product of symptom severity, and frequency, on 5-point Likert scales) and global symptom severity (GSS; global esophageal symptoms on 10-cm visual analog scales) at the time of esophageal testing; BMIs were recorded. We compared proportions of patients with EMD and abnormal reflux burden among BMI categories and correlated them with symptom burden. RESULTS: Four-hundred thirty-three patients (39.8%) met the criteria for EMD. Esophageal outflow obstruction was observed in higher proportions of patients with low BMIs (underweight, 25.9%; normal, 14.1%; overweight, 13.9%; and obese, 9.8%; P = .037), but EMDs were less frequent in obese patients (P = .047), despite higher symptom burden compared with non-obese patients (DSI, 10.5 +/- 0.3 vs 9.7 +/- 0.2; P = .03 and GSS, 6.5 +/- 1 vs 5.9 +/- 1; P = .01). Among the 426 patients who underwent reflux monitoring, the proportions with total AET (P = .02), and upright AET (P < .001) increased among BMI categories, supine AET trended strongly (P = .06), in combination with increasing DSI and GSS (P <= .001 for each comparison). BMI correlated with symptom burden, higher AET, and positive symptom association probability (P < .01 for each analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Increased symptom burden in obese individuals correlates with esophageal acid burden but not with motor disorders.

Persistent Low Level of Hepatitis B Virus Promotes Fibrosis Progression During Therapy

期刊: CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 2020; 18 (11)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Progression of liver fibrosis still occurs in some patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection despite antiviral therapy. We aimed to identify risk factors for fibrosis progression in patients who received antiviral therapy. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of patients with chronic HBV infection and liver biopsies collected before and after 78 weeks of anti-HBV therapy. Fibrosis progression was defined as Ishak stage increase >= 1 or as predominantly progressive classified by P-I-R system (Beijing Classification). Levels of HBV DNA and HBV RNA in blood samples were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. HBV RNA in liver tissue was detected by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: A total of 239 patients with chronic HBV infection with paired liver biopsies were included. Among the 163 patients with significant fibrosis at baseline (Ishak >= stage 3), fibrosis progressed in 22 patients (13%), was indeterminate in 24 patients (15%), and regressed in 117 patients (72%). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that independent risk factors for fibrosis progression were higher rate of detected HBV DNA at week 78 (odds ratio, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.30-17.98; P = .019) and alcohol intake (odds ratio, 23.84; 95% CI, 2.68-212.50; P = .004). HBV DNA was detected in blood samples from a significantly higher proportion of patients with fibrosis progression (50%) at week 78 than patients with fibrosis regression (19%) or indeterminate fibrosis (26%) (P = .015), despite low viremia (20-200 IU/mL) in all groups. The decrease of serum HBV RNA from baseline in the fibrosis regression group was larger than that in the fibrosis progression group. CONCLUSIONS: In a longitudinal study of patients with chronic HBV infection, we associated liver fibrosis progression at week 78 of treatment with higher rates of detected HBV DNA. We propose that a low level of residual HBV may still promote fibrosis progression, and that patients' levels of HBV DNA should be carefully monitored.

Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Portal Vein Thrombosis in Patients With Cirrhosis and Acute Decompensation

期刊: CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 2020; 18 (11)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common and serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. However, little is known about PVT in patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation (AD). We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of PVT in nonmalignant patients with cirrhosis and AD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 2 cohorts of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic liver disease who participated in the Chinese AcuTe on CHronic LIver FailurE study, established by the Chinese Chronic Liver Failure Consortium, from January 2015 through December 2016 (n = 2600 patients) and July 2018 through January 2019 (n =1370 patients). We analyzed data on the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and risk factors of PVT from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, with and without AD. RESULTS: The prevalence of PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD was 9.36%, which was significantly higher than in patients with cirrhosis without AD (5.24%) (P = .04). Among patients with cirrhosis and AD, 63.37% developed PVT recently (the first detected PVT with no indication of chronic PVT). Compared with patients without PVT, a significantly higher proportion of patients with PVT had variceal bleeding (47.33% vs 19.63%; P < .001) and patients with PVT had a significantly higher median serum level of D-dimer (2.07 vs 1.25; P < .001). Splenectomy and endoscopic sclerotherapy were independent risk factors for PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD. The 1-year mortality rate did not differ significantly between patients with vs without PVT. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, a significantly higher proportion of those with AD had PVT than those without AD. PVT was associated with increased variceal bleeding, which would increase the risk for AD. Strategies are needed to prevent PVT in patients with cirrhosis, through regular screening, to reduce portal hypertension.

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