Background: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with malnutrition among infants with Cleft palate and/or cleft lip (CP+/-L) at Comprehensive Rehabilitation for Uganda Hospital (CoRSU) in Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on infants with CP+/-L and their caretakers admitted between November 2013 and October 2014 at CoRSU hospital which was the study setting. A questionnaire was answered by the infants' caretakers. The main outcome measure, malnutrition was defined and classified based on Z-scores obtained using the W. H. O Z-calculator in which weights of the infants in kilograms and lengths in centimeters respectively were placed. The values obtained were expressed as a proportion using all enrolled infants with CP+/-L as denominator. Multivariable analysis was used to determine the risk factors. Results: A total of 44 infants with CP+/-L were enrolled. Of these, 77% were below 4 months of age and 97.7% were immunized. The male-to-female ratio was 1.06: 1. About 59% had unilateral CP+/-L. A total of 93.2% were delivered at term with 69.4% having a birth weight greater than 3 kg. Generally, 68% were malnourished, with the highest burden among females (71.4%), infants below 4 months (73.5%) and those with unilateral CP+/-L (77%). About 57% had moderate-to-severe malnutrition. There was delayed supplementation to breast milk, with cow-milk as the main supplemental feed for all the infants. In the multivariable analysis, factors associated with malnutrition included, having caretakers lacking nutritional information post-delivery (OR = 3.8, p = 0.17), low birth weight (OR = 3.4, p = 0.20), and having less than 10 feeds/day (OR = 4.9, p = 0.09). Conclusion: CP+/-L infants born in Uganda suffer a high-burden of malnutrition. Preventional strategies are needed with focus on proper feeding information. Research on cost-effective feeds, feeding methods and reasons behind gender disparities in these infants is also required.
Background: Nearly half of the population of Northwest China live in Shaanxi province, but population-based data on the epidemiologic characteristics of congenital heart defects (CHD) in this population is limited. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of the CHD among infants born between 2010 and 2013 in Shaanxi province. Methods: Infants born between 2010 and 2013 in Shaanxi province were surveyed using a stratified multi-stage sampling method. Participant characteristics were recorded by questionnaire, medical records were reviewed and CHD was diagnosed using a specialized neonatal echocardiography. A Poisson regression model was applied to assess the association between any CHD and possible risk factors. Results: A total of 29098 live infants were surveyed with an overall prevalence of 76.0 (95% CI: 66.3, 86.7) per 10000 live infants. The prevalence of major and minor CHD were 26.1 and 49.8 per 10000 live infants, respectively, in surveyed areas. Poisson regression analysis indicated that, compared with singleton infants, the prevalence rate ratio of CHD was higher in twin and multi-fetal infants (PRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.6, 6.1). Using southern Shaanxi as a reference, the PRR of CHD were lower in northern (PRR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6) and central Shaanxi province (PRR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.7). PRR was higher in mothers over 30 years of age than in those under 25 years (PRR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.5), and in mothers with >= 3 parity than that in mothers with only one parity (PRR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2). The risk for CHD among live infants was positively associated with family history of CHD (PRR: 9.8, 95% CI: 5.3, 18.1). Additionally, CHD was less common in the floating population than the permanent population (PRR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9). Conclusion: The CHD among live infants seemed to be a serious health problem in Shaanxi province as well as in Northwestern China. Our research have important policy implications for recommendations on CHD intervention in Northwest China.
Background: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and analyze its associated clinical and sociodemographic factors, assessing HRQOL through internet. Methods: This was a descriptive study of 136 patients with T1DM from 5 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain (72 girls, mean age 13.4 years (range 8-19). Inclusion criteria were more than 6 months from diagnosis, more than 8 years old and without cognitive problems. Sociodemographic (age, sex, family level of education, type of family and origin) and clinical variables (type of insulin therapy, duration of disease, adherence to treatment, body mass index and HbA1c) were collected. HRQOL was assessed using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-Y) and KIDSCREEN, collected via web. Mental health status was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were adjusted. Results: Physical-well-being mean scores were lower (worse) than the European average (< 50) and especially in girls, older children (> 11 years old), those from single-parent families, and those with low adherence. Older children and patients with poor metabolic control (HbA1c > 7,5% [58 mmol/mol]) showed worse scores in the KIDSCREEN-10 index. Similar results were observed with the EQ-5D-Y. Multivariate models showed that age, single-parent families, adherence and mental health were the most influential factors. Conclusions: Diabetic patients report similar HRQOL than the population of the same age with slightly worse physical well-being. The study shows some factors to be taken into account to improve HRQOL, and also the feasibility of using web to collect information in clinical practice.
Background: The transport of critically ill patients to children's hospitals is essential to current practice. The AAP Section on Transport Medicine has raised concerns about future leadership in the field as trainees receive less exposure to transport medicine. This study identifies the priorities of pediatric subspecialty fellows, fellowship directors and nursing directors in transport medicine education. Methods: Internet based surveys were distributed to fellows, fellowship directors and nursing directors of transport teams affiliated with ACGME-approved fellowships in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (NPM), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (PCCM), and Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM). Data collection occurred November 2013 to March 2014. Results: Four hundred and sixty-six responses were collected (357 fellows, 82 directors, 27 nursing directors): Six curricular elements were ranked by respondents: Transport Physiology (TP), Medical Control (MC), Vehicle Safety (VS), Medicolegal Issues (ML), Medical Protocols (MP) and State and Federal Regulations (SFR). Fellows and fellowship directors were not significantly different: TP (p = 0.63), VS (p = 0.45), SFR (p = 0.58), ML (p = 0.07), MP (p = 0.98), and MC (p = 0.36). Comparison of subspecialties found significant differences: PEM considered TP less important than NPM and PCCM (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), VS less important than NPM (p = 0.001). PEM viewed SFR and MC more important than PCCM (p = 0.006, p = 0.002); ML more important than PCCM and NPM (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). PCCM ranked MC more important than NPM (p = 0.004). Nursing directors considered TP less important than NPM and PCCM (p < 0.001, p = 0.002). Conclusions: When ranking curricular elements in transport medicine, fellows and fellowship directors do not differ, but comparison of subspecialties notes significant differences. A fellow curriculum in transport medicine will utilize these results.
Background: Stunting has been identified as one of the major proximal risk factors for poor physical and mental development of children under- 5 years. Stunting predominantly occurs in the first 1000 days of life (0- 23 months) and continues to the age of five. This study examines factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under- 5 years in Nigeria. Methods: The sample included 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Height-for-age z-scores (HFAz), generated using the 2006 World Health Organisation (WHO) growth reference, were used to define stunting (HFAz <-2SD) and severe stunting (HFAz <-3SD). Multilevel logistic regression analyses that adjusted for cluster and survey weights were used to determine potential risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria. Results: The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 29% [95% Confidence interval (Cl): 27.4, 30.8] and 16. 4% [95% Cl: 15.1, 17.8], respectively for children aged 0-23 months, and 36.7% [95% Cl: 35.1, 38.3] and 21% [95% Cl: 19.7, 22.4], respectively for children aged 0-59 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that the most consistent significant risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among children aged 0-23 months and 0-59 months are: sex of child (male), mother's perceived birth size (small and average), household wealth index (poor and poorest households), duration of breastfeeding (more than 12 months), geopolitical zone (North East, North West, North Central) and children who were reported to having had diarrhoea in the 2 weeks prior to the survey [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for stunted children 0-23 months = 1.22 (95% Cl: 0.99, 1.49)];[AOR for stunted children 0-59 months = 1.31 (95% Cl: 1.16, 1.49)], [AOR for severely stunted children 0-23 months = 1.31 (95% Cl: 1.03, 1.67)]; [AOR for severely stunted children 0-59 months = 1.58 (95% Cl: 1.38, 1.82)]. Conclusions: In order to meet the post-2015 sustainable development goals, policy interventions to reduce stunting in Nigeria should focus on poverty alleviation as well as improving women's nutrition, child feeding practices and household sanitation.
Background: In the UK, 1-2% of infants are born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) or have very low birth weight (<1500 g). Very preterm infants are initially unable to be fed nutritional volumes of milk and therefore require intravenous nutrition. Milk feeding strategies influence several long and short term health outcomes including growth, survival, infection (associated with intravenous nutrition) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); with both infection and NEC being key predictive factors of long term disability. Currently there is no consistent strategy for feeding preterm infants across the UK. The SIFT trial will test two speeds of increasing milk feeds with the primary aim of determining effects on survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months of age, corrected for prematurity. The trial will also examine many secondary outcomes including infection, NEC, time taken to reach full feeds and growth. Methods/design: Two thousand eight hundred very preterm or very low birth weight infants will be recruited from approximately 30 hospitals across the UK to a randomised controlled trial. Infants with severe congenital anomaly or no realistic chance of survival will be excluded. Infants will be randomly allocated to either a faster (30 ml/kg/day) or slower (18 ml/kg/day) rate of increase in milk feeds. Data will be collected during the neonatal hospital stay on weight, infection rates, episodes of NEC, length of stay and time to reach full milk feeds. Long term health outcomes comprising vision, hearing, motor and cognitive impairment will be assessed at 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity) using a parent report questionnaire. Discussion: Extensive searches have found no active or proposed studies investigating the rate of increasing milk feeds. The results of this trial will have importance for optimising incremental milk feeding for very preterm and/ or very low birth weight infants. No additional resources will be required to implement an optimal feeding strategy, and therefore if successful, the trial results could rapidly be adopted across the NHS at low cost.