Background Post- embolization syndrome is a common complication after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known to ameliorate liver damage from several causes. Aim To determine the efficacy of intravenous NAC in the prevention of post-embolization syndrome in HCC patients following TACE. Methods In this study, patients with HCC admitted for TACE were prospectively enrolled. All patients were randomized stratified by Child A or B to receive NAC or placebo. The NAC group received intravenous NAC 24 h prior to TACE (150 mg/kg/h for 1 h followed by 12.5 mg/kg/h for 4 h, then continuous infusion 6.25 mg/h for 48 h after the procedure). The placebo group received an infusion of 5% glucose solution until 48 h after procedure. The post- embolization syndrome was defined as: T = 38.5 c and serum ALT > 3 times of pretreatment value. Results In total, 111 HCC patients were enrolled; 57 were randomly assigned to NAC group and 54 to placebo group. The incidence of post-embolization syndrome was lower in NAC group (24.6%) compared to placebo group (48.2%); P = 0.01. On multivariate analysis, receiving IV NAC (P = 0.03) and HCC diameter (P < 0.01) were associated with developing post-embolization syndrome. Post-TACE liver decompensation was documented in 26/111 (23.4%) patients. There was no difference in the incidence of post-TACE liver decompensation between NAC and placebo group. Conclusions In this study, intravenous NAC administration reduces the incidence of post-embolization syndrome after TACE in patients with HCC. However, it does not prevent post-TACE liver decompensation.
Background With advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA), hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is dramatically increasing. Although few studies reported rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following DAA treatment, there have been no studies that followed sufficient number of DAA-treated patients after successful HCC treatment to examine HCC recurrence. Methods We conducted a cohort study of HCV+ patients who had successfully treated HCC before initiating DAAs. We conducted medical record reviews to confirm HCC diagnosis, treatment, and remission prior to DAA initiation, and subsequent HCC recurrence. We calculated HCC recurrence rate and examined the recurrent tumor characteristics. We used Cox proportional hazard model to identify factors associated with HCC recurrence. Results We identified 264 HCV+ patients who received DAAs after an average of 30.9 (20.6) months following HCC treatment. HCC recurred in 26.1% patients during 23.3 (9.8) months follow-up, at a rate of 0.38 [0.30, 0.48] per 1000 personmonth. Most (82.3%) recurrent HCC were early stage. Receiving non-curative treatment for HCC was associated with a higher risk of recurrence than curative treatment (HRadj = 2.06, [1.24, 3.40]). The risk of HCC recurrence decreased with longer duration between HCC treatment completion and DAA initiation (HRadj = 0.97, [0.95, 0.99] per additional month). Compared with patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR), those without SVR had significantly increased risk of HCC recurrence (HRadj = 4.17, [1.48, 11.75]). Conclusions We conclude that most HCV+ patients with HCC benefit from DAA treatment; however, timing of DAA initiation after HCC treatment should be carefully considered.
Background and Aims EUS-guided biliary drainage has emerged as a technique to enable endobiliary drainage in failed ERCP. A newer model, lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS), with a cautery-enhanced delivery system became available in the USA in late 2015. This cautery-tipped version may facilitate EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD), but data using this model are lacking. Methods We reviewed outcomes of attempted EUS-CD using cautery-enhanced LAMS from 6, US centers. The following data were collected: patient and procedure details, technical success, adverse events, clinical success (resolution of jaundice or improvement in bilirubin > 50%), and biliary re-interventions. Results EUS-CD was attempted in 67 patients (mean age 68.8) with malignant obstruction after failed ERCP between September 2015 and April 2018. EUS-CD was technically successful in 64 (95.5%). A plastic or metal stent was inserted through the lumen of the deployed LAMS in 50 of 64 (78.1%) patients to maintain a non-perpendicular LAMS axis into the bile duct. Adverse events occurred in 4 (6.3%) and included: abdominal pain (n = 2), peritonitis that responded to antibiotics (n = 1), and bleeding requiring transfusion (n = 1). Among 40 patients with follow-up of > 4 weeks, clinical success was achieved in 100%. Biliary re-interventions for obstruction were needed in 7(17.5%), in 3 of 6 (50.0%) that underwent EUS-CD with LAMS alone versus 4 of 34 (5%) with LAMS plus an axis-orienting stent (p = 0.02). Conclusion EUS-CD using LAMS with cautery-enhanced delivery systems has high technical and clinical success rates, with a low rate of adverse events. Inserting an axis-orienting stent through the lumen of the LAMS may reduce the need for biliary re-interventions.
Background Percutaneous drainage is a first-line treatment for bilomas developed post-cholecystectomy in the setting of bile leak from the cystic duct stump. Percutaneous drainage is usually followed by surgical or endoscopic treatment to address the leak. Aims This study aimed to evaluate outcome of selective coil embolization of the cystic duct stump via the percutaneously placed drainage catheters in patients with post-cholecystectomy bile leak. Methods Seven patients with persistent bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy who underwent percutaneous catheter placement for biloma/abscess formation in the region of the gallbladder fossa were followed. These patients underwent selective trans-catheter cystic duct stump coil embolization from Feb 2013 to Feb 2019. Procedural management, complications, and success rates were analyzed. Results All patients underwent placement of a percutaneous catheter for drainage of biloma formation in the gallbladder fossa post-cholecystectomy. Selective coil embolization of the cystic duct was performed through the existing percutaneous tract on average 3.5 weeks after percutaneous catheter placement, resulting in resolution of the biloma. All bile leaks were immediately closed. None of the patients showed recurrent bile leak or further clinical symptoms. Coil migration to the common bile duct was diagnosed in a single case, after 2.5 years, with no bile leak reported. Conclusions Selective trans-catheter coil embolization of the cystic stump is a feasible and safe procedure, which successfully seals leaking cystic duct stumps and can circumvent the need for repeat surgical or endoscopic intervention in selected patient populations.
Background Insufficient blood supply in the gastric tube is considered as a risk factor for postoperative anastomotic strictures in patients receiving esophagectomy, but the direct evidence is lacking. Aims We aimed to investigate the correlation between perioperative blood supply in the anastomotic area of the gastric tube and the formation of anastomotic strictures in the patients undergoing esophagectomy. Methods This prospective study included 60 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing Ivor Lewis esophagectomy between March 2014 and February 2016, which were divided into stricture group (n = 13) and non-stricture group (n = 47) based on their severity of anastomotic strictures at 3 months post-operation. The perioperative anastomotic blood supply was measured using a laser Doppler flowmetry. The gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) was measured by a gastric tonometer within 72 h post-operation. The perfusion index and gastric pHi were compared between groups. Results The stricture group had a significantly lower blood flow index (P < 0.001) and gastric pHi values from day 1 to day 3 post-operation than the non-stricture group (all P < 0.001). In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that both the perfusion index and gastric pHi were significantly correlated with stricture size and stricture scores, respectively (r = 0.65 - 0.32, all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perfusion index was an influential factor associated with postoperative anastomotic strictures (OR 0.84. 95% CI 0.72-0.98, P = 0.026). Conclusion These results suggested that poor blood supply in the anastomotic area of the gastric tube in the perioperative period was a risk factor for postoperative anastomotic strictures.
Background Up to 20% of patients can have recurrence of adenomatous tissue at first surveillance study after colon endoscopic mucosal resection of large polyps. Aims To determine whether an educational intervention discussing thermal ablation of lateral margins of the mucosectomy site of post-endoscopic mucosal resection defect with snare tip soft coagulation (STSC) would decrease adenoma recurrence. Methods We performed a single-center quality improvement project from November 1, 2016, to November 30, 2017. Gastroenterologists underwent an educational intervention demonstrating the treatment of peripheral margins of mucosectomy site with STSC after standard mucosectomy technique. These cases (intervention group) were compared with consecutive procedures performed prior to commencement of the quality improvement study (pre-intervention group). Patients with large colorectal lesions (>= 20 mm) were included. Results Of the 120 patients here included, overall demographics of the groups were similar and the most common histology was sessile serrated adenoma (study group 45% vs 32% control group). Adenoma recurrence on intervention group and pre-intervention group was 12% versus 30%; p = 0.01. On univariate analysis, biopsy prior to mucosectomy, intraprocedural bleeding, and application of STSC on mucosectomy defect were the strongest predictors of adenoma recurrence. Adenoma recurrence in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the pre-intervention group in both univariate (odds ratio, 0.3 [95% CI, 0.11-0.80]) and multivariate analyses (odds ratio, 0.2 [95% CI, 0.12-0.92]). Conclusions The implementation of STSC of post-endoscopic mucosal resection peripheral defects is clinically feasible and significantly decreased adenoma recurrence.
Background The epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal (L4) Crohn's disease in China remains poorly characterized. Aims We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of L4 disease and clarify the relationship between disease characteristics at diagnosis and early outcomes. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 246 patients diagnosed between 2013 and 2017 and followed up for > 1 year post-diagnosis. Primary outcomes included the 1-year rates of hospitalization and abdominal surgery according to disease location and behavior. Results Of 80 patients with L4 disease (61, 25, and 18 with esophagogastroduodenal, jejunal, and proximal ileal involvement, respectively), none had granuloma, whereas 66.7%, 50%, 46.9%, 75%, and 70% had disease-specific endoscopic lesions in the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and proximal ileum, respectively. Compared to non-L4 disease, L4 disease was associated with higher rates of abdominal surgery (41.3% vs. 11.4%, P < 0.001) but similar rates of hospitalization within 1 year post-diagnosis. In L4 disease, jejunal and proximal ileal involvement was associated with stricturing behavior (P = 0.034, P < 0.001) and higher abdominal surgery rate (both: P < 0.001). Risk factors for abdominal surgery within 1 year post-diagnosis included age >= 40 years (OR 1.920; 95% CI 1.095-3.367), L4 phenotype (OR 6.335; 95% CI 3.862-10.390), stricturing disease (OR 3.162; 95% CI 1.103-9.866), and penetrating disease (OR 11.504; 95% CI 3.409-38.825), whereas the protective factor was female sex (OR 0.214; 95% CI 0.123-0.373). Conclusions Early outcomes are worse for L4 than for non-L4 disease. Jejunoileum involvement predicts stricturing disease and early surgery. More aggressive initial therapy is needed to improve L4-disease prognosis.
Background Simkania negevensis is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium ( family Simkaniaceae, order Chlamydiales) that has been isolated from domestic and mains water supplies, is able to infect human macrophages, and can induce an inflammatory response in the host. Methods From June to December 2016, in a single-center observational study, colonic Crohn's disease patients and controls (subjects undergoing screening for colorectal cancer) underwent blood tests to identify serum-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) to S. negevensis and a colonoscopy with biopsies for detection of S. negevensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Forty-three Crohn's disease patients and 18 controls were enrolled. Crohn's disease patients had higher prevalence of IgA antibodies to S. negevensis compared with controls (20.9% versus 0%, p = 0.04). Simkaniaceae negevensis DNA was detected in 34.9% and 5.6% of intestinal biopsies in Crohn's disease patients and controls, respectively (p = 0.02). All Crohn's disease patients with PCR-positive biopsies for S. negevensis were IgG seropositive, with specific IgA in 60% of them (p < 0.001). Immunosuppressive therapies, extraintestinal manifestations, or disease activity did not influence the presence of S. negevensis in the Crohn's disease population. Conclusions We identified S. negevensis in Crohn's disease patients by demonstrating the presence of S. negevensis mucosal DNA and seropositivity to the bacterium. These results could support the presence of an acute or persistent S. negevensis infection and suggest a possible role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease.
Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) follows a relapsing and remitting course incurring cumulative bowel damage over time. The question of whether or not the timing of the initiating biologic therapy affects long-term disease progression remains unanswered. Herein, we calculated rates of change in the Lemann index-which quantifies accumulated bowel damage-as a function of the time between the disease onset and initiation of biologic therapy. We aimed to explore the impact of the earlier introduction of biologics on the rate of progression of long-term cumulative bowel damage. Methods Medical records of CD patients treated during 2009-2014 at The Mount Sinai Hospital were queried. Inclusion criteria were two comprehensive assessments allowing calculation of the index at t(1) and t(2): two time-points >= 1 year apart. Patients with biologics introduced before or within 3 months at inclusion (t(1)) were defined as Bio-pre-t(1) and those who did not as Bio-post-t(1). The rate of disease progression was calculated as the change in the index per year during t(1)-t(2). Results A total of 88 patients were studied: 58 Bio-pre-t(1) and 30 Bio-post-t(1). Among the 58 Bio-pre-t(1) cases, damage progressed in 29 (50%), regressed in 20 (34.5%), and stabilized in 9 (15.5%). Median time to initiation of biologics among patients whose index improved was nominally shorter compared to that in patients whose index progressed (8 vs. 15 years). Earlier introduction of biologics tended to correlate with the slower rate of progression (rho = 0.241; p = 0.069). Conclusions Earlier introduction of biologics tended to correlate with the slower progression of bowel damage in CD, reflected by the reduced rate of Lemann index progression.
Background Delayed colectomy can be life-threatening for patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC). However, few biomarkers can predict the outcomes of ASUC patients before treatment. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) has been observed to be increased in ASUC patients. Aim The aim of this study was to estimate the association between serum PCT and short-term outcomes in patients with ASUC. Methods A single-center observational study was conducted at a referral hospital from January 2012 to January 2018. Hospitalized ASUC patients, who were administered intravenous corticosteroids (IVCS), were enrolled and followed up for 6 months. The primary outcome was IVCS failure; the secondary outcome was colectomy. Relationships between indicators and clinical outcomes were assessed. Results Of 152 ASUC patients enrolled in this study, 81 responded to IVCS and 71 failed (62 required short-term colectomy and 9 responded to second-line rescue therapy). Serum PCT on admission was significantly higher in IVCS-failure cases and surgical cases than in medical responders. Serum PCT >= 0.10 mu g/L (OR=4.134, p=0.001) predicted IVCS failure with specificity of 0.741, and the combined measurement with fecal calprotectin (FC) >= 1500 mu g/g improved the sensitivity. Serum PCT correlated significantly with the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (r=0.416, p<0.001) and FC (r=0.384, p<0.001). Conclusion Serum PCT on admission could be a potential early non-invasive predictive biomarker for IVCS failure in ASUC patients, and a combination of PCT and FC could improve the predictive value.
Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exacerbation requiring hospitalization increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and current guidelines recommend pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis (PVTEP). Aims Bleeding risks with PVTEP in this population are poorly defined, and no study has investigated packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion requirements in this population. Methods We conducted a chart review of all adult hospitalizations for IBD exacerbation within the Northwell Healthcare system. Patient characteristics recorded included demographics, disease type ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, severe disease defined by inpatient corticosteroid or biologic use, and admission hemoglobin. Inpatient use of PVTEP and antiplatelet therapies were identified. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion. Results In total, 717 patients met inclusion criteria, accounting for 891 admissions. PVTEP was used during 60.4% of admissions, and 11.1% of patient admissions included a transfusion event. Severe disease patients receiving PVTEP had an 18.6% transfusion risk, versus 11.1% for those not receiving PVTEP, OR 1.82, CI (1.04-3.17). One multivariable analysis transfusion was associated with PVTEP, OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.18, 3.77, p=0.0120, disease severity OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.81,5.54, p<0.0001, anti-platelet therapies OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.90, p=0.0107, bowel resection OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.97,7.63, p<0.0001 and decreased admission hemoglobin OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.73-2.32, p<0.0001, but not disease type ulcerative colitis OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.42-1.20. Conclusion PVTEP during IBD exacerbation is associated with increased PRBC transfusions. Our findings do not constitute a contraindication to PVTEP, but may be incorporated into patient counseling during inpatient IBD management.
Background With the aging of the population and rising incidence of thromboembolic events, the clinical use of antithrombotic agents is also increasing. There are few reports yet on the management of antithrombotic agent use in patients undergoing cold snare polypectomy (CSP). Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continued administration of antithrombotic agents in patients undergoing CSP would be associated with an increased rate of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding (DPPB). Methods A total of 1177 colorectal polyps in 501 patients were resected at Omori Red Cross Hospital between October 2017 and March 2018. The polyps were divided into two groups depending on whether the patients received antithrombotic agent treatment or not: the antithrombotic group (911 polyps) and the no-antithrombotic group (266 polyps). Results Among the 1177 polyp resections, there was no case of DPPB, including in the antithrombotic group. Immediate bleeding occurred in a total of 63 (5.4%) cases. Polyp location in the rectum (OR (95% CI) 2.64 (1.223-5.679); p = 0.013), polyp size >= 6 mm (OR (95% CI) 4.64 (2.719-7.933); p < 0.001), polypoid growth pattern (OR (95% CI) 2.78 (1.607-4.793); p < 0.001), and antithrombotic agent use (OR (95% CI) 2.98 (1.715-5.183); p < 0.001) were identified as significant risk factors of immediate bleeding. Conclusions Continued use of antithrombotic agents does not increase the risk of DPPB, even in those receiving multiple antithrombotic agents. Thus, it is safe to perform CSP even in multiple agent users. Prospective, randomized studies are necessary to confirm our results.